Later Mughals History Study Material
Later Mughals (1707-1862)
Mauzam, the second son of Aurangzeb, ascended the throne, assuming the title of Bahadur Shah, after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. He ruled for 5 years, till 1712. He was succeeded by his son Jahandar. In 1714, lahandar was succeeded by Farukhsiyar. He was helped by Abdullah Khan and Hussian Ali, the two Syed brothers of Barah, known in Indian history as kingmakers. Muhammad Shah succeeded Farukhsiyar. He also claimed the throne with the help of Syed brothers. Muhammad Shah Alam I (1719-1748) ruled for 28 years. The Mughals who came after him were Ahmed Shah (1748-1754); Alamgir II (1754-1759); Shah Alam II (1759-1806); Akbar II (1806-1837) and Bahadur Shah II (1837-1862), the last Mughal Emperor who was made premier during 1857 revolt. He was deported to Rangoon, Burma (now Myanmar) in 1858. He died in 1862.
Invasion of Nadir Shah
In 1739 during the reign of Muhammad Shah, a Persian king, Nadir Shah invaded India, Muhammad Shah at the Battle of Karnal and later mercilessly massacred the people of Delhi. Nadir Shah, however, reinstated Muhammed Shah and went back to Persia. Nadir Shah’sinvasion broke the back of Mughal Empire. As a result the Marathas became very powerful in the Deccan. Sadat Ali Khan, Governor of Awadh, and Alivardi Khan, Governor of Bengal and the Rohillas in the Ganges valley also became independent.
The empire of Muhammad Shah’s successor Ahmad Shah (1748-1754) only consisted of the lands adjoining Delhi and some districts in Uttar Pradesh. Imalul-mulk became Ahmad Shah’s wazir after terrorising him, and ultimately placed his son Muhammad Azim Uddaulah on the throne as Alamgir II. He was later on murdered and another Mughal prince was installed on the throne.
The heir apparent. Prince Shah Alam, sought refuge with Nawab Wazir of Awadh. Shah Alam was recognised as the emperor by Abdali, the successor of Nadir Shah. He lived under the protection of the English, after his defeat at their hands at the Battle of Buxar in 1764. In 1771, he returned to Delhi at the invitation of the Marathas, who placed him on the throne. Shah Alam II was succeeded by Akbar Shah II (1806-1837). The last Mughal ruler, famous as Bahadur Shah Zafar. ruled between 1837 and 1858 as a titular king under the British. The Mughal emperors ruled only in name until 1857-1858 as the real political power in the eighteenth century had shifted to new kingdoms.
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