Successors of Indus Valley Civilization In India study Materials

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Successors of Indus Valley Civilization In India study Materials

The Successors of Indus valley Civilization

            Most of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization were abandoned by circa 1800 BC; however, a number of village cultures continuing some aspects of the Indus tradition later developed in these regions. By at least 1500 BC, Indo- Aryans had entered South Asia, and by circa 700 BC, they had established new cities along the Ganges River. From Approximately 2000 BC, new regional cultures were gradually emerged. Among these were the Cemetery H Culture of the Punjab, which was strongly influenced by the preceding Indus Valley Civilization and the cultures represented by Pirak in Sindh, the Quetta Hoard and the Gandhara Grave Culture, All exhibit some central Asian influence. Further eastward, in what is now northern India, the Copper Hoard Culture and the Painted Grey Ware Culture, both of which are believed to have been associated with the Indo-Aryan speakers, developed. Evidence of new traditions such as urns containing cremated bones and ashes appear, particularly’ in the Cemetery II Culture and the Gandhara Grave Culture. Domesticated horses and camels were also fully used for the first time in South Asia during this period.

Continuing Traditions

            The use of baked bricks in architecture, which began even before the Indus Valley Civilization, continues to be the most common type of construction in South Asia today Traditions involving the worship of nature and possibly even the ‘Mother Goddess’ were integrated into the traditions of the Indo-Aryan speakers in the form of a reverence for cows, pipal trees, rivers and water The traditions and beliefs of the Indus Valley Civilization contributed the rise of the Hindu religion and laid the foundation for all the subsequent civilizations in South asia.Thus many of the   traditions of South Asia have survived for millennia and continue to this day.

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Kot Diji

            The site of Kot Diji is located at the foot of a range of limestone hills in northen Sindh on the eastern bank of the Indus River, some 60 kilometers north-east of Mohenjodaro. Excavated in 1955 by F. A. Khan, it is the type-site of the Kot Diji Culture, which represents the first evidence of habitation at the site this culture is characterised by the use of the red-slipped globular jar with a short neck painted with a black band. Briefly co-existing with the Indus Valley Civilization the Harappan Culture), the Kot Diji Culture eventually gave way to the blossoming Indus Valley Civilization. During the peak of the KotDiji Culture, the site was divided into a citadel and a lower town Standardised bricks; terracotta cakes fish-scale and intersecting-circle designs on pottery and other traits found in the Indus Valley Civilization were already in use at the site. On the basis of this evidence and the fact that similar artefacts were found over much of the vast area of the later Indus (or Harappan) Civilization, Dr. M. R. Mughal suggested calling the early stage at Kot Diji and at other sites the Early Harappan Culture.

Civilizations that: Developed After the Indus Valley Civilization

Cementry H Culture (circa 1900-300 BC) This culture, which developed in and around Punjab following the peak of the Indus Valley Civilization, was named after the cemetery found in Area H at Harapoa. Some of the burials in Cemetery H wore secondary burials of urns containing human remains. The pottery was generally decorated withered slip, painted with antelopes, peacocks and other motifs in black, and was sometimes polished. A pot that was excavated at Dadheri may represent a local variation of this culture.

Finds from Pirak (circa 1800 to Eighth Century BC)

Contemporaneous with the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, the Pirak Culture with its characteristic geometric polychrome pottery arose on the Kachi plain where the site of Mahrgarh had also prospered. Here, horses and camels were domesticated or the first time in South Asia, and the riding of horses is clearly tested. Another major transition occurred as summer crops namely sorghum and rice, were added to the existing winter crop assemblage, which was dominated by wheat. A saw-toothed stone sickle was probably used to harvest these cereals.

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The Quetta Hoard (the beginning of second millennium BC)

This well-known group of vessels and ornaments made of precious metals and stones was discovered by chance in the modern city of Quetta. The gold pendants shaped like cattle, the gold cups decorated with lions and other figures in relief, the gold necklaces and cornelian and chalcedony pendants rimmed with gold are all beautifully crafted. These objects, all reportedly found in tombs, are excellent examples of the combination of cultural influences from Baluchistan, northern Iran and Turkmenistan that began during the period following the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Gandhara Grave Culture (circa 1600-200 BC)

The Gandhara Grave Culture developed from circa 1600 to 200 BCin the regions of Swat, Gandhara and Taxila. The culture is characterised by artefacts found primarily in graves and pottery that is somewhat similar to some of the pottery from northern Iran. The terracotta figurines burled with the pottery are simply made and other ornaments ate also simply decorated with dot designs, because horse remains were found in at least one burial, it has been suggested that those people may have boon Indo-Aryans who were presumably in the area by this time.

Copper Hoard Culture (circa 1500to 1000 BC)

Hoards of copper implements such as cells, harpoons, anthropomorphs, double axes, antennae swords and rings have been found at several sites, mostly in northern India. In some cases, they are associated with OCR. The high degree of purity of copper may indicate that the people exploited the Lakker mines in the Chotta Nagpur range. The size and weight of those artefacts would have made thorn unsuitable for daily use. In addition, the absence of use-wear and the context of the findings suggest that they were ritual objects. Some of the axes are similar in shape to those form the Indus Valley Civilization, which may suggest some cultural interaction. Archaeologists only recently have discovered some of the habitation sites of the people who left behind these hoards, Utilitarian and decorative artefacts such ds stone tools, bangles and beads made of precious stones have now been recovered as well.

Painted Grey Ware (PGW) Culture (circa 1200 to sixth century BC)

Painted Grey Ware (PGW) pottery was made of well levigated clay on a wheel. It is typically grey in colour, thin in section, and painted with black or red geometric patterns. The limited range of shapes includes a flat based, convex sided dish; a small hemispherical bowl; medium and large flat-based, bawd, straight-sided bowls; and a vase (late) with a straight-sided body, sharp at the shoulder and a straight neck. PGW represents deluxe ware in a mixed ceramic assemblage of various fabrics und manufacture. These ceramic assemblages have been found in the Ghaggar and Indo-Gangetic regions and belong to the Early Iron Age in India.

Amri

            Amri is located in Sind (pakistan) on the western bank of the Indus River, approximately (50 kilometres south of Mohenjodaro. The site was excavated by N. G. Majumdar in 1929 and by J. M. Casalbetween 1959 and 1962. The site reached its maximum extent of more than six hectares under the influence ofthe Baluchistan Culture. A number of structures identified as granaries were constructed, which suggests that there were farm surpluses and population growth. Pottery from the early period at this site is similar to the Nal pottery of southern Baluchistan and is thus, sometimes referred to as Amri-Nal pottery. During the transitional phase with the Harappan Culture (or Indus Valley Civilization), a wall encircled the site and a platform made of sun-dried bricks was constructed inside. A thick layer of ash over parts of the site suggests an incident with fire, after which the site exhibits the exclusive influence of the Harappan Culture.

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