National Insignia of India PDF – GK Material

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National Insignia of India PDF - GK Material
National Insignia of India PDF - GK Material

National Insignia of India PDF. Here we have given the National Insignia of India PDF for your reference. Candidates can download the GK PDF from the link given below.

National Flag

            The national flag was adopted by the constituent assembly of India on 22nd July 1947, and presented to the nation at the midnight session of the Assembly on 14 August 1947, on behalf of the women of India. The flag was unfurled on Parliament House.

BACKGROUND

            The tricolour flag was first born in the All India Congress Committee (AICC) meeting at Bezwada in 1912, when a flag was shown by an Andhra youth and improved by Mahatma Gandhi with the addition of a white band and chakra.

DIMENSION

            The ratio of the width (proportion) of the flag to its length is 2:3. All the three bands are of equal width with deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom.

Static GK PDF – List of Topics 

WHEEL (CHAKRA)

            In the centre of the white band is a wheel in navy blue colour. The design of the wheel is that of the abacus of the Srinath Lion Capitol. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.

Significance of Colours

  • Saffron : Signifies courage and sacrifice
  • White : Signifies truth and peace
  • Green : Signifies faith and chivalry

            The wheel symbolizes India’s ancient culture, dynamism and peaceful change, and is adopted from the Dharma Chakra of Emperor Ashoka. Even an unusable national flag cannot be destroyed. There is a code as to how to put aside the unusable national flag prescribed by the government.

National Emblem

            The national emblem and seal of the Government of India is a replica of the Capitol of Ashoka’s Pillar at Sarnath. In the original capitol of the stone pillar four lions are carved outstanding back to back. In the emblem, however, only three lions are visible as it appears in print, the fourth one remains hidden from the view. The capitol is mounted on an abacus (base plate). There is a dharma chakra in the centre of the base plate, on the right of which is a figure of a bull and on the left that of a horse. There is an inscription in Devanagari script, a quotation from the Mundak Upanishad below the base plate which reads ‘Satya Meva Jayate’, which means ‘Truth alone triumphs’.

BACKGROUND

            The original Lioned Capital of the Ashoka Pillars was designed between 242 and 232 BC to hallow the spot where Buddha first initiated his disciples into the eightfold salvation. The national emblem was adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950.

National Anthem (Jana Gana Mana)

Composer : Rabindranath Tagore in 1911
First Sung : 27 December 1911, during the Indian National Congress Session at Kolkata
When Adopted : 24 January 1950, by the constituent assembly of India.
English Translation : Rendered by Tagore himself in 1919, under the title ‘Morning Song of India’.

BACKGROUND

            It was originally composed in Bengali language and first published in January 1912, under the title ‘Bharat Vidhata’ in Tatva-Bodhini Patrika edited by Tagore himself. The complete song consists of five stanzas. However, the first stanza has been adopted by the defence forces of India to be sung on all ceremonial occasions and it constitutes the full version of the national anthem.

PLAYING TIME

            About 52 seconds for the full version. However, a shorter version comprising the first and the last lines of the stanza has a playing time of 20 seconds and is played on ceremonial occasions.

National Song (Vande Mataram)

COMPOSER

            Bankim Chandra Chatterjee First sung: 1896 session of Indian National Congress.

WHEN ADOPTED 24 January 1950, along with the national anthem. English Translation: Rendered by Sri Aurobindo.

BACKGROUND

            Both the national song and the national anthem were adopted together and have equal status. It has been taken from Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s novel Ananda Math published in 1882. It had been a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom.

National Calendar (Saka)

            At the time of independence, the Government of India followed the Gregorian calendar based on the Christian Era. From 22 March 1957 (Saka 1879) a unified Indian national calendar to be used for official purposes was introduced based on the Saka era which began with vernal equinox of AD 78. Chaitra is the first month and Phalguna is the last month of the Saka year. The normal Saka year has 365 days and the dates of the Saka year have permanent correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian calendar. Chaitra 1 falls on 22 March in a normal year and on 21 March in a leap year.

USE OF NATIONAL CALENDAR

            The national calendar is used for the following official purposes of the Government of India, they are listed hereunder.

  • Gazette of India
  • News broadcasts Akashwani
  • Communications addressed to the public by the Government of India

It is issued by the Government of India.

 COMMENCEMENT OF NATIONAL CALENDAR

            Chaitra 1, Saka 1879 corresponding to 22 March 1957.

TABLE 1.1 Days in National Calender

Saka Months No. of Days Corresponding Gregorian Dates
1 Chaitra 30 (31 in leap year) 22 March (21 in leap year)
1 Vaishaka 31 21 April
1 Jyaistha 31 22 May
1 Asadha 31 22 June
1 Sravana 31 23 July
1 Bhadra 31 23 August
1 Asvina 30 23 September
1 Kartika 30 23 October
1 Agrahayana 30 22 November
1 Pausa 30 22 December
1 Maha 30 21 January
1 Phaguna 30 20 February

National Animal

            Since November 1972 the tiger (Panthera Tigris) has been adopted as the national animal.

Project Tiger: To check the dwindling tiger population in India.  ‘ProjectTiger’ was launched in April 1973. At the moment, there are 27 tiger reserves in India spread in an area of 3776 km2.

National Bird

            Peacock (Pavo cristatus): It is fully protected under the

Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Adopted  as the national bird in 1964, its hunting has since then been banned.

National Flower, National Tree and National Fruit

NATIONAL FLOWER

            Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). It has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial

 NATIONAL TREE

            The banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis). It has the widest reaching roots of all known trees, easily covering several acres.

NATIONAL FRUIT

            Mango (Manigifera indica). It is cultivated throughout India (with exception of hilly areas) since time immemorial.

National Language

            Hindi is the official language of the Government of India. Besides Hindi, 17 other regional languages have also been recognized in the Constitution of India.

National Day

National Day Date and Month Remarks
Independence 15 August India achieved
Day Independence on this day in 1947
Republic Day 26 January India became a Republic on this day in 1950
Martyr’s Day 30 January Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on this day in 1948
Teachers’ Day 5 September Birthday of Dr S. Radhakrishnan, first Vice-President of India
Children’s Day 14 November Birthday of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Gandhi Jayanti 2 October Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi

Other Important Days

Day   Date and Month
National youth day 12th January
Army Day 15th January
National Science Day 28th February
National Maritime Day 5th April
Quit India Day 9th August
Air Force Day 8th October
National Rededication Day 31th October
National Integration Day 9th November
Flag Day 7th December
Navy Day 4 4th December

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