Infinitive, Gerund & Participle English Grammar Study Material


Infinitive, Gerund & Participle English Grammar Study Material

Infinitive :

Infinitives are non-finite verbs. Infinitive is formed by adding to with a verb that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence.

When a verb is in its infinitive state, it has no subject or object. It is used to define the action of the verb without tying it to a specific person. It is a verb acting without a subject. The infinitive is the verb in its purest form. An infinitive should be treated as a single word with a single meaning.

List of Infinitive Verbs

Infinitives in Regular Verbs


To answer To arrive To ask To dry
To carry To clean To close To enjoy


Gerunds are present participles that are used as nouns and end with an -ing. Gerunds can function as the subject of a verb, the object of a verb, a predicate nominative or complement, or the object of a preposition.

The -ing form is a general term for words called either ‘gerund’ or ‘present participle’ in traditional approaches to grammar.

 List of Gerunds


answering Arriving asking reading
carrying Cleaning closing enjoying
finishing disscussing helping consulting

Participle :

Participles can be either active (e.g. breaking) or passive (e.g. broken). Participles are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses. The two types of participle in English are traditionally called the present participle (formssuch  writing, singing and raising) and the past participle (forms such as written, sung and raised).

Participles have various uses in a sentence. One use of a participle is simply as an adjective:

  • brokenfallen tree. An interesting book.

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