Mughal Emperors

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Mughal Emperors

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The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals were a branch of the Timurid dynasty of Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia.

The Mughals lived and reigned in India from 1526 to 1858 AD. Their dynasty was the greatest, richest and longest-lasting Muslim dynasty to rule India. This dynasty produced the finest and most elegant arts and architecture in the history of Muslim dynasties.

Babur Interest in literature, art, music and gardening. Jahangir Mughal painting reached a high level of elegance and richness during his reign.

Majesty king & Reign Year:

Titular NameBirth NameBirthReignDeathAge 
BāburZahir-ud-din Muhammad23 February 1483, 1 April 1526 – 26 December 153026 December 1530 47
HumayunNasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun17 March 150826 December 1530– 17 May 154027 January 1556 48
22 February 1555 - 27 January 1556
Akbar-i-AzamJalal-ud-din Muhammad14 October 154227 January 1556 – 27 October 160527 October 1605 63
JahangirNur-ud-din Muhammad Salim20 September 156915 October 1605 – 8 October 162728 October 162758
Shah-JahanShahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram5 January 15928 November 1627 – 2 August 165822 January 166674
Alamgir IMuhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb4 November 161831 July 1658 – 3 March 17073 March 1707 88
Bahadur ShahQutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam Shah Alam14 October 164319 June 1708 – 27 February 171227 February 1712 68
Jahandar ShahMa'az-ud-Din Jahandar Shah Bahadur9 May 166127 February 1712 – 11 February 171312 February 171351
FarrukhsiyarFarrukhsiyar20 August 168511 January 1713 – 28 February 171929 April 171933
Rafi ud-DarajatRafi ud-Darajat30 November 169928 February – 6 June 17199 June 171919
Shah Jahan IIRafi ud-DaulahJune 16966 June 1719 – 19 September 171919 September 1719 23
Muhammad ShahRoshan Akhtar Bahadur17 August 170227 September 1719 – 26 April 174826 April 1748 45
Ahmad Shah BahadurAhmad Shah Bahadur23 December 172526 April 1748 – 2 June 17541 January 177549
Alamgir IIAziz-ud-din6 June 16992 June 1754 – 29 November 175929 November 1759 60
Shah Jahan IIIMuhi-ul-millat171110 December 1759 – 10 October 17601772 (aged 60–61)61
Shah Alam IIAli Gauhar25 June 172824 December 1759 – 19 November 180619 November 1806 (aged 78)78
Akbar Shah IIMirza Akbar22 April 176019 November 1806 – 28 September 183728 September 183777
Bahadur Shah IIAbu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafa24 October 177528 September 1837 – 23 September 18577 November 186287

Administrative Reforms:

Akbar combated those trends by instituting comprehensive reforms that involved two fundamental changes.

  • First, every officer was, at least in principle, appointed and promoted by the emperor instead of by his immediate superior.
  • Second, the traditional distinction between the nobility of the sword and that of the pen was abolished:
  • civil administrators were assigned military ranks, thus becoming as dependent on the emperor as army officers.

  • Achieve: During his reign, the Mughal Empire extended to most of the Indian subcontinent, stretching from the Himalayas in the north to the Vindhyas in the south and Hindukush in the north-west to Brahmaputra River in the east.
  • He annulled the special tax payable by Hindus for making pilgrimages in 1563 and completely abolished the jizya, or the annual tax, paid by non-Muslims in 1564, thus earning respect from his subjects.
  • In 1569, he established a new capital west of Agra to celebrate his victory over Chittorgarh and Ranthambore, which was named Fatehpur Sikri (‘City of Victory’)
  • During Aurangzeb’s reign many Indians converted to Islam.

In Aurangazep Administration: 

  • When it comes to the administration of the empire, Aurangzeb was one of the best among the dynasty. The Mughal Empire was at its pinnacle of power under Aurangzeb and under its greatest length.
  • The textile industry in the Mughal Empire emerged very firmly during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and was particularly well noted by Francois Bernier, a French physician of the Mughal Emperor.

Cultures & Battles:

King NameCultureBuitBornDeathMajor Battles
BaburArtistically, architecturally, a mixture of several culturesBabri MosqueAndijanAgraFirst Battle of Panipat and Battle of Khanwa
HumayunArchiecture, Mughal Court culture, Persian art, architecture, language and literatureHumayun's tombKabulDelhiBairam Khan was successful in recapturing the capital for Humayun.
AkbarLiterature and art,Agra Fort, the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri, and the Buland Darwaza.UmarkotAgraBattles Of Panipat and Second Battle Of Panipat
JahangirPersian culture in Mughal IndiaShalimar Gardens in Kashmi, grand buildings and gardens in LahoreFatehpur SikriLahoreWar and peace with Mewar
Shah JahanArts, crafts and architecture,building palaces, mosques and gardens, including the Taj Mahal and Pearl Mosque  Lahore AgraWar with Portuguese
AurangzebArchitectureMoti (Pearl) Mosque built at Delhi, and the Badshahi (Imperial) Mosque built at Lahore.Dhod, Malwa AhmednagarBattle Of Samugarh

Construction:

  • Other constructions are the Red Fort also called the Delhi Fort or Lal Qila in Urdu, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid, the Wazir Khan Mosque, the Moti Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens, sections of the Lahore Fort, the Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar, the Jahangir mausoleum—his father’s tomb, the construction of which was overseen by his stepmother Nur Jahan and the Shahjahan Mosque

The Last Mughal Dynasty:

he last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, also known as Zafar, died in a British prison in Burma in 1862. As the last of the dynastic line that extended back to the sixteenth century, he had in his earlier years presided over a culturally sophisticated court, but as the British East India Company extended its control over more of India, his rule was clearly coming to an end.

 

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