Reasoning and General Intelligence – BLOOD RELATION
Blood relation does mean biological relation. Remember a wife and husband are met biologically related but they are biological parents of their own children. Similarly, brother, sister, paternal grandfather, paternal grandmother maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother, grandson, granddaughter, niece, cousin etc. are our blood relatives.
TYPES OF BLOOD RELATIONS
There are mainly two types of blood relatives:
- Blood relation from paternal side
- Blood relation from maternal side
Now, we will discuss both kind of relations one-by one.
- Blood relation from paternal side : This type of blood relation can be further subdivided into three types:
- Past generations of father: Great grandfather, great grandmother, grandfather, grandmother etc.
- Parallel generations of father: Uncles (Brothers of father) aunts (sisters of father) etc.
- Future generations of father: Sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters etc.
- Blood relation from maternal side: This type of blood relations can also be subdivided into three types:
- Past generations of mother: Maternal great grandfather, maternal great grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother etc.
- Parallel generations of mother: Maternal uncles, maternal aunts etc.
- Future generations of mother: Sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters etc.
In the examinations, the questions are given in complicated way. In other words, in the given questions, the easy relationship takes the complicated form and examinees are expected to solve this complication in order to find out the correct answer. How does an examinee get aid of this complication? For this, an examineesees the given data in the question with a serious eye; then tries to establish relation among elements of given data on the basis of certain logic and finally finds out the required answer. In fact complications in the asked question occur because of the given indirect relation. It does mean questions are in the form of indirect relation & one has to convert this indirect relation into direct relation. For example “only son of my father” does mean ‘me’ (myself)- Here in place of ‘me’ indirect relation has been given in form of “only son of my father”. Similarly, “the only daughter of the parents in laws of the husband of Vandana” does mean ‘Vandana’ herself. In this example also the sentence “the only daughter of the parents in laws of the husband of ‘Vandana’ has been given in the form of indirect relation. Below are given some indirect relation in the form of a list. Examinees are required to them by heart. If are keeps this list in one’s mind, he/she will find it very easy to solve problems based on blood relations.
|Son of father or mother||Brother|
|Daughter of father or mother||Sister|
|Brother of father||Uncle|
|Brother of mother||Maternal uncle|
|Sister of father||Aunt|
|Sister of mother||Aunt|
|Father of father||Grandfather|
|Father of father’s father||Great grand father|
|Father of grandfather||Great grand father|
|Mother of father||Grandmother|
|Mother of father’s mother||Great grand mother|
|Mother of grandmother||Great grand mother|
|Father of mother||Maternal grandfather|
|Father of mother’s father||Great maternal|
|Father of maternal||Great maternal|
|Mother of mother||Maternal grand Mother|
|Mother of mother, mother||Great maternal grandmother|
|Mother of maternal||Great maternal|
|Wife of father||Mother|
|Husband of mother||Father|
|Wife of Grandfather||Grandmother|
|Husband of Grandmother||Grandfather|
|Wife of son||Daughter-in-law|
|Husband of daughter||Son-in-law|
|Brother of Husband||Brother-in-law|
|Brother of wife||Brother-in-law|
|Sister of Husband||Sister-in-law|
|Sister of wife||Sister-in-law|
|Son of brother||Nephew|
|Daughter of brother||Niece|
|Wife of brother||Sister-in-law|
|Husband of sister||Brother-in-law|
|Son of sister||Nephew|
|Daughter of sister||Niece|
|Wife of uncle||Aunt|
|Wife of maternal uncle||Aunt|
|Son/daughter of uncle/Aunt||Cousin|
|Son/daughter of maternal uncle/maternal aunt||Cousin|
|Son/daughter of sister of Father||Cousin|
|Son/daughter of sister||Cousin|
|Only son of grandfather||Father|
|Only daughter of maternal||Mother|
|Daughter of grandfather||Aunt|
|Sons of grandfather other||Uncle|
|Son of maternal grandfather /maternal grand mother||Maternal Uncle.|
|Only daughter in law of grandfather/ grandmother||Mother|
|Daughters in law of||Aunt other than mother|
|Daughters-in-law of maternal grandfather/||Aunt maternal grandmother|
|Neither brother nor sister||Self|
Without the information of gender, no relationship can be established between two people. For example, If given that R is the child of P & Q, then we can only say that P & Q are the parents of R. But we cannot find out:SOME IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT BLOOD RELATION
(i) R is the son of P & Q or R is the daughter of P & Q.
(ii) Who is mother of R and who is father of R.
But if we have given that P is a male, Q is a female and R is male, then we can easily say that R is the son of P and Q. Further we can also say that P is father of R and Q is mother of R.
- Gender cannot be decided on the basis of name. For example in Sikh community the names like Manjit, Sukhvinder etc. are the names of both male and female. Similarly, in the Hindu Community ‘Suman’ is the name of both male and female.
Remember: Solution Tips
- While solving blood relation based question, first of all find out that two persons between whom a relationship has to be established.
- Next, try to find out middle relation
- Finally find out the relationship between two persons to be identified for this, purpose.
Type of problems
- General problems of blood relation
- Blood relation based on family tree
Now, we will discuss all the three types of problems one by one
- General problem of blood relation
Sample Q: Pointing towards a photograph, Mr.Sharma said, “She is the only daughter of mother of my brother’s sister.” How is Mr.Sharma related to the lady in the photograph?
(a) Cousin (b) Sister
(c) Aunt (d) Daughter in law
Ans. Here we have to find relationship between Mr.Sharma & the lady in the photograph.
Mother of my brother’s sister does mean my (Mr. Sharma’s) mother. Only daughter of Mr.Sharma’s mother does mean “sister of Mr.Sharma”. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
- Blood relation based on family tree
Sample Q: Q is the brother of C and C is the sister of Q. R and D are brother and sister. R is the son of A while A & C are wife and husband. How is Q related with D.
Ans. For such type of question a family tree is made in which some symbols are used as below:
‘⇔’ is used for husband & wife.
‘__’ is used for brother & sister
‘ | ’ is used for parents (father or mother). Parents are put on top while children are put at the bottom.
‘-’ or minus sign is used for female
‘+’ or plus sign is used for male.
Now adopting and using the above given symbols we can make a family tree and solve the given problem, let us see the family tree for sample question:
Family + tree:
|A+ C− Q+
As per the question Q is the brother of c and c is the sister of Q. Hence relation between C & Q has been presented as where ‘−’ sign above C makes it clear that C is a female and ‘+’ sign above ‘Q’ makes it clear that Q is a male. Similarly for R and D. The presentation has been made. Further according to the question.A and C are having a husband and wife relationship and hence this has been presented as . As it is already given that C is the sister of Q and A and C are wife and husband, this becomes clear that A is the male member of the family and this is the reason A has ‘+’ as its gender sign. Lastly, the vertical line gives father and sort relationship and has been presented as . Now from this family tree it becomes clear that C is the mother of R and D and as Q is the brother of C, then Q will definitely be the maternal uncle of R & D. Hence we can say that Q is the maternal uncle of D and this is the required answer for our sample question.