Reasoning and General Intelligence – Classification
You must have in your mind that what does classification mean. In fact, in classification we take, out an element out of some given elements and the element to be taken out is different from the rest of the elements in terms of common properties, shapes, sizes, types, nature, colours, traits etc. In this way the rest of the elements form a group and the element that has been taken out is not the member of that group as this single element does not possesses the common quality to be possessed by rest of the elements. For example, if we compare the elements like, lion, cow, tiger, panther, bear and wolf then we find that this is a group of animals. How do we classify them? To understand this let us see the presentation given below:-
|Wild animal||Domestic animal||Wild animal||Wild animal||Wild animal||Wild animal|
Here, if we want to separate out one animal then definitely that animal will be cow because, cow is the only animal in the group which is a domestic animal. Rest of the animals (Lion, Tiger, Panther, Bear and Wolf) are wild animals. Hence rest of the animals (Lion, Tiger, Panther, Bear & Wolf) form a group of wild animals separating out the domestic animal (Cow).
Similarly, out of 6 letters A, M, N, S, P & Q, we will take out A and form a group of 5 letters M, N, S, P & Q because out of given six letters only A is a vowel while rest of the letters form a group of consonants.
Types of classification:
(1) Letter/meaningless word based classification
(2) Meaningful word based classification
(3) Digit based classification
(4) General knowledge based classification
Now we will discuss types of classifications one by one:-
- Letter/meaningless word based classification:- Such classifications are based on letters of English alphabet. So many groups of letters are given in the question in which one group is different from remaining groups and hence the different group will be our answer.
EXAMPLE 1. Find the odd word out of the following options
(a) PQT (b) UVY
(c) DEH (d) IJN
Sol. (a) R S 2 letter gap (b) W X 2 letter gap
(c) F G 2 letter gap (d) K L 3 letter gap
As it is clear that except option (d) all the other options have 2 letters gap between 2nd and third letters and the 1st two letters are in consecutive order. While in case of option (d) 1st two letters are in consecutive order but there is 3 letters gap between 2nd and third letter separating it out of the remaining group of the letters. Hence option (d) is the correct option.
EXAMPLE 2. Following are given four options and out of them 3 form a group in terms of some similarity. Find out the option which does not fit into that group.
(a) LMNO-ONML (b) PQRS-SRQP
(c) IJKL-LKJI (d) UVWX-VUXW
Sol. Above presentation makes it clear that (d) does not fit into the groups.
- Meaningful words based classification:- In such type of classification we have to take odd word out of the given group of meaningful words.
EXAMPLE 3. Which one of the following words is not a part of the group formed by remaining words. The remaining words form the group on the basis of certain similarity.
(a) Name (b) Game
(c) Fame (d) Shame
Sol. (d) is the correct answer because this is the only word which has 5 letters while the remaining words have 4 letters and hence options (a), (b), & (c) form a group separating cut option (d).
EXAMPLE 4. Out of the 4 words given below, three have certain thing common and so they form a group. Find out the word which one is not a part of that group.
(a) Slim (b) Trims
(c) Greets (d) Grid
Sol: Option (c) is the correct option because this is the only option which has two vowels while the other options have only one vowel. Let us see the following presentation:-
a) S L I M S (b)T R I M S – 1 Vowel c) T R (I) M S – 1 Vowel
b) G R (E E) T S – 2 Vowel d) G R (I) D – 1 Vowel
3. Digit based classification:- In such type of classifications digits or numbers are given to find out one number that is not a part of the group of remaining numbers.
EXAMPLE 5. Find the odd number out.
(a) 122 (b) 128
(c) 199 (d) 200
Sol: Option (c) is the correct option because this is an odd number while all the other options are even numbers.
EXAMPLE 6. Four of the following numbers have some similarity and hence they form a group. Find out the number which does not suit in the group.
(a) 7842 (b) 8952
(c) 7122 (d) 7722
Sol.: Option (b) is the correct answer as except option (b) all other options start with 7 & end with 2.
- General knowledge based classification: Such classification is done on the basis of our general knowledge. No doubts that this is a word based classification but without having general knowledge this type of questions cannot be solved.
EXAMPLE 7. Find the odd man out.
(a) Patna (b) Mumbai
(c) Madhya Pradesh (d) Bengaluru
Sol.: Option (c) is the correct answer because Madhya Pradesh is an Indian state while all other options arc capitals of Indian slates. Patna is the capital of Bihar, Mumbai is the capital of Maharashtra and Bengaluru is the capital of Karnataka. In case of Madhya Pradesh (it is an Indian state), we can say that it has its capital in Bhopal.
EXAMPLE 8. Which of the following animals does not fit into the group formed by remaining animals?
(a) Cat (b) Dog
(c) Tiger (d) Octopus
Sol.: Option (d) is the correct option as this is the only animal out of given options which is a water animal. Rest of the options are land animals.
EXAMPLE 9. Three of the following given options have some similarity and so they form a group separating out one option. Find out that separate option.
(a) Tendulkar (b) Dravid
(c) Sania Mirza (d) Yuvraj Singh
Sol. Option (c) is the correct option because Sania Mirza is an Indian tennis player. While the rest of the options are Indian cricketers.
Now, this chapter has come to an end. Readers are advised to move as per the following steps while solving the problems related to classification:-
Step 1: See all the given options with a serious eye.
Step II: Try to make relation of similarity among the given options.
Step III: Find out the one word not having the common similarity like other options and that one word will be your answer.
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