Reasoning and General Intelligence – Analogy

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Reasoning and General Intelligence – Analogy

The meaning of analogy is ‘similar properties’ or similarity. If an object or word or digit or activity shows any similarity with another object or word or digit or activity in terms of properties, type, shape, size, trait etc., then the particular similarity will be called analogy. For example, cricket: ground and chess: table are the analogous pairs (why?). In fact, both pairs of words have similar relationship in terms of place of playing as cricket is played in the ground and similarly chess is played on the table.

Reasoning & Ability – Analogy PDF Download

TYPES OF ANALOGY.

  1. Tool & object based analogy: This establishes a relationship between a tool and the object in which it works. Similar relations have to be discovered from answer choices.

Examples:

Pencil : Paper
Pen : Paper
Scissors : Cloth
Saw : Wood
Eraser : Paper
  1. Synonym based analogy: In such type of analogy two words have similar meaning.

Examples:

Big : Large
Huge : Gigantic
Endless : Eternal
Thin : Slim
Benevolent : Kind
Notion : Idea
Huge : Big
  1. Worker & tool based analogy: This establishes a relationship between a particular tool and the person of that particular profession who uses that tool.

Examples:

Writer : Pen
Painter : Brush
Cricketer : Bat
Blacksmith : Hammer
Barber : Scissors
Hunter : Gun
  1. Worker & product based analogy: This type of analogy; gives a relationship between a person of particular profession and his/her creations.

Examples:

Batsman : Run
Writer : Book
Author : Novel
Singer : Song
Poet : Poem
Journalist : News
  1. Cause & effect based analogy: In such type of analog 1st word acts and the 2nd word is the effect of that action

Examples:

Work : Tiredness
Bath : Freshness
Race : Fatigue
Shoot : Kill
  1. Opposite relationship (Antonym) based analogy: I such type of analogy the two words of the question pair at opposite in meaning. Similar relations has to be discovere from the answer choice word pairs.

Examples:

Poor : Rich
Fat : Slim
Tall : Short
Big : Small
Light : Dark
Avoid : Meet

 

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  1. Gender based analogy: In such type of analogy, one word is masculine and another word is feminine of it In fact, it a ‘male and female’ or ‘gender’ relationship.

Examples:

Man : Woman
Boy : Girl
Nephew : Niece
Bull : Cow
Duck : Drake
  1. Classification based analogy: This type of analogy is based on biological, physical, chemical or any other classification. In such problems the 1st word may be classified by the 2ndword and vice-versa.

Examples:

Cow : Animal
Girl : Human
Oxygen : Gas
Water : Liquid
Snake : Reptile
Parrot : Bird
  1. Function based analogy: In such type of analogy, 2nd word describes the function of the 1st

Examples:

Singer : Sings
General : Commands
Player : Plays
Surgeon : Operates
  1. Quantity and unit based analogy: In such type of analogy 2ndword is the unit of the first word and vice-versa.

Examples:

Distance : Mile
Mass : Kilogram
Length : Meter
  1. Finished product & raw material based analogy: In such type of analogy the 1stword is the raw material and 2ndword is the end product of that raw material and vice-versa.

Examples:

Yam : Fabric
Milk : Curd
Flour : Bread
Latex : Rubber
Grape : Wine
Fruit : Juice
  1. Utility based analogy: In such type of analogy the 2ndword shows the purpose of the 1stword or vice-versa.

Examples:

Pen : Writing
Food : Eating
Chair : Sitting
Bed : Sleeping
Bat : Playing
  1. Symbolic relationship based analogy: In such type of analogy, the 1st word is the symbol of the 2ndword and vice-versa.

Examples:

White : Peace
Red : Danger
Black : Sorrow
Red cross : Hospital
Swastika : Fortune

 

Reasoning Analogy Questions, Answers & Explanation PDF Download

  1. Adult & young one based analogy: In such type of analogy, the 1stword is the adult one and 2nd word is the young one of the 1stword or vice-versa.

Examples:      

Cow : Calf
Human : Child
Dog : Puppy
Duck : Duck ling
  1. Subject & specialist based analogy: In such type of analogy the 2nd word is the specialist of 1stword (subject) or vice-versa.

Examples:      

Heart : Cardiologist
Skin : Dermatologist
  1. Habit based analogy: In this type of analogy 2nd word is the habit of 1stand vice-versa.

Examples:

Cat : Omnivorous
Tiger : Carnivorous
Cow : Herbivorous
Goat : Herbivorous
  1. Instrument and measurement based analogy: We see in this type of analogy, the 1st word is the instrument to measure the 2nd word and vice-versa:

Examples:      

Hygrometer : Humidity
Barometer : Pressure
Thermometer : Temperature
Sphygmomanometer : Blood pressure
  1. Individual & group based analogy: Second word is the group of 1stword (or vice-versa) in such type of analogy.

Examples:      

Cow : Herd
Sheep : Flock
Grapes : Bunch
Singer : Chorus
  1. State & capital based analogy: 1stword is the state and 2ndword is the capital of that state (1stword) (or vice-versa) in the analogy like this.

Examples:

Bihar : Patna
West Bengal : Kolkata
Maharashtra : Mumbai
Karnataka : Bengaluru

Note: Analogy based on country and capital is very similar to this type of analogy in which we put name of the country in place of the name of state and country capital in place of state capital. For example India: New Delhi and Nepal: Kathmandu.

  1. Analogy based on individual & dwelling place: In such type of analogy 1st word is the individual & 2ndword is the dwelling place of that individual (1st word) and vice- versa.

Examples:

Horse : Stable
Bee : Apiary
Dog : Kennel
Birds : Aviary
Monk : Monastery
Human : House
  1. Analogy based on worker and working place: In this type of analogy the 1stword represents a person of particular profession and 2ndword represents the working place of that person (1stword) and vice-versa.

  Examples:

Doctor : Hospital
Clerk : Office
Cook : Kitchen
Professor : College
Teacher : School
  1. Analogy based on topic study: 1stword is the study of the 2ndword (or vice-versa) in the analogy like this.

Examples:

Birds : Ornithology
Earth quakes : Seismology
Eggs : Zoology
  1. Analogy based on letters (or meaningless words)

Case I: (Forward alphabetical sequence)

Examples: CD: FG:: PQ: UV

Here CD and FG are in the natural alphabetical sequence. Similarly, PQ & UV are in the      natural alphabetical sequence.

Case II: (Backward or opposite alphabetical sequence)

Example: DC: GF: QP: VU

In fact this case is opposite of case I

Case III: (Vowel — consonant relation)

Example: ATL: EVX: IPR: ORS

Here, the 1sttwo words start with the 1sttwo vowels A & E and the next two words start with the next two vowels I &. O. Last two letter of every word are consonants.

Case IV:  (Skip letter relation)

Example: ABC:   FGH:: IJK: NOP

Here between ABC & FGH two letters skip and they are D & E. Similarly, between IJK & NOP two letters skip and they are L&M.

Case V: (Jumbled letters relation)

Example: LAIN : NAIL :: EVOL : LOVE

Here the 1st term gets reversed to produce the 2nd term and similar relation is shown in between 3rd and 4th term.

  • ABCD : OPQR :: WXYZ : KLMN

In (ii) each letter of the 1stgroup ‘ABCD’ is moved fourteen steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the 2ndgroup ‘OPQR’.

A similar relation is established between the third group ‘WXYZ’ and the fourth group ‘KLMN.’

NOTE: Every type of analogy discussed in (23) may have different variations of problems and you can get perfection on them by proper practice only.

Format of the questions

EXAMPLE 1. Lion is to flesh as cow is to

            (a) snake                      (b) grass

            (c) worm                      (d) animal

Sol. Lion eats flesh, similarly, cow eats grass. Hence option (b) is the right answer.

EXAMPLE 2. Pen: Writer: : …….Batsman

            (a) Brush                      (b) Fighter

            (c) Stick                       (d) Bat

Sol. Option (d) is the correct answer because a writer uses pen to write and similarly a          batsman uses bat to play.

EXAMPLE 3. NCDP: ODEQ:: …….MPRO

            (a) LOQN                    (b) NQOL

            (c) OQNL                    (d) QNOL

Sol. Option (a) is the correct answer as letters of 1st  term go one step forward to be the 2ndterm. Similarly, the letters of 3rdterm will go one step forward to be the 4thterm (Letters of step go one step backward to be the 3rd term).

EXAMPLE 4.Bulky: Fat: : Happiness: ?

            (a) Bad                         (b) Ugly

            (c) Joy                         (d) Sorrow

Sol. (c) is the correct option because ‘Bulky’ is the synonym of‘Fat’ and similarly ‘Happiness’ is the synonym of ‘joy’.

            Now, we can say that we have discussed almost all type of analogy to be asked frequently in the examinations. But examinees must prepare for any surprise kind of problems while solving the problems under this segment. But by practicing more & more, you can be master in solving these problems. Only  keep in mind the following:

  1. You must have strong word power.
  2. You must have good understanding & reasoning ability.
  3. You must have good general knowledge.

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