Reasoning and General Intelligence – Analogy
The meaning of analogy is ‘similar properties’ or similarity. If an object or word or digit or activity shows any similarity with another object or word or digit or activity in terms of properties, type, shape, size, trait etc., then the particular similarity will be called analogy. For example, cricket: ground and chess: table are the analogous pairs (why?). In fact, both pairs of words have similar relationship in terms of place of playing as cricket is played in the ground and similarly chess is played on the table.
TYPES OF ANALOGY.
- Tool & object based analogy: This establishes a relationship between a tool and the object in which it works. Similar relations have to be discovered from answer choices.
- Synonym based analogy: In such type of analogy two words have similar meaning.
- Worker & tool based analogy: This establishes a relationship between a particular tool and the person of that particular profession who uses that tool.
- Worker & product based analogy: This type of analogy; gives a relationship between a person of particular profession and his/her creations.
- Cause & effect based analogy: In such type of analog 1st word acts and the 2nd word is the effect of that action
- Opposite relationship (Antonym) based analogy: I such type of analogy the two words of the question pair at opposite in meaning. Similar relations has to be discovere from the answer choice word pairs.
- Gender based analogy: In such type of analogy, one word is masculine and another word is feminine of it In fact, it a ‘male and female’ or ‘gender’ relationship.
- Classification based analogy: This type of analogy is based on biological, physical, chemical or any other classification. In such problems the 1st word may be classified by the 2ndword and vice-versa.
- Function based analogy: In such type of analogy, 2nd word describes the function of the 1st
- Quantity and unit based analogy: In such type of analogy 2ndword is the unit of the first word and vice-versa.
- Finished product & raw material based analogy: In such type of analogy the 1stword is the raw material and 2ndword is the end product of that raw material and vice-versa.
- Utility based analogy: In such type of analogy the 2ndword shows the purpose of the 1stword or vice-versa.
- Symbolic relationship based analogy: In such type of analogy, the 1st word is the symbol of the 2ndword and vice-versa.
- Adult & young one based analogy: In such type of analogy, the 1stword is the adult one and 2nd word is the young one of the 1stword or vice-versa.
- Subject & specialist based analogy: In such type of analogy the 2nd word is the specialist of 1stword (subject) or vice-versa.
- Habit based analogy: In this type of analogy 2nd word is the habit of 1stand vice-versa.
- Instrument and measurement based analogy: We see in this type of analogy, the 1st word is the instrument to measure the 2nd word and vice-versa:
- Individual & group based analogy: Second word is the group of 1stword (or vice-versa) in such type of analogy.
- State & capital based analogy: 1stword is the state and 2ndword is the capital of that state (1stword) (or vice-versa) in the analogy like this.
Note: Analogy based on country and capital is very similar to this type of analogy in which we put name of the country in place of the name of state and country capital in place of state capital. For example India: New Delhi and Nepal: Kathmandu.
- Analogy based on individual & dwelling place: In such type of analogy 1st word is the individual & 2ndword is the dwelling place of that individual (1st word) and vice- versa.
- Analogy based on worker and working place: In this type of analogy the 1stword represents a person of particular profession and 2ndword represents the working place of that person (1stword) and vice-versa.
- Analogy based on topic study: 1stword is the study of the 2ndword (or vice-versa) in the analogy like this.
- Analogy based on letters (or meaningless words)
Case I: (Forward alphabetical sequence)
Examples: CD: FG:: PQ: UV
Here CD and FG are in the natural alphabetical sequence. Similarly, PQ & UV are in the natural alphabetical sequence.
Case II: (Backward or opposite alphabetical sequence)
Example: DC: GF: QP: VU
In fact this case is opposite of case I
Case III: (Vowel — consonant relation)
Example: ATL: EVX: IPR: ORS
Here, the 1sttwo words start with the 1sttwo vowels A & E and the next two words start with the next two vowels I &. O. Last two letter of every word are consonants.
Case IV: (Skip letter relation)
Example: ABC: FGH:: IJK: NOP
Here between ABC & FGH two letters skip and they are D & E. Similarly, between IJK & NOP two letters skip and they are L&M.
Case V: (Jumbled letters relation)
Example: LAIN : NAIL :: EVOL : LOVE
Here the 1st term gets reversed to produce the 2nd term and similar relation is shown in between 3rd and 4th term.
- ABCD : OPQR :: WXYZ : KLMN
In (ii) each letter of the 1stgroup ‘ABCD’ is moved fourteen steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the 2ndgroup ‘OPQR’.
A similar relation is established between the third group ‘WXYZ’ and the fourth group ‘KLMN.’
|NOTE: Every type of analogy discussed in (23) may have different variations of problems and you can get perfection on them by proper practice only.|
Format of the questions
EXAMPLE 1. Lion is to flesh as cow is to
(a) snake (b) grass
(c) worm (d) animal
Sol. Lion eats flesh, similarly, cow eats grass. Hence option (b) is the right answer.
EXAMPLE 2. Pen: Writer: : …….Batsman
(a) Brush (b) Fighter
(c) Stick (d) Bat
Sol. Option (d) is the correct answer because a writer uses pen to write and similarly a batsman uses bat to play.
EXAMPLE 3. NCDP: ODEQ:: …….MPRO
(a) LOQN (b) NQOL
(c) OQNL (d) QNOL
Sol. Option (a) is the correct answer as letters of 1st term go one step forward to be the 2ndterm. Similarly, the letters of 3rdterm will go one step forward to be the 4thterm (Letters of step go one step backward to be the 3rd term).
EXAMPLE 4.Bulky: Fat: : Happiness: ?
(a) Bad (b) Ugly
(c) Joy (d) Sorrow
Sol. (c) is the correct option because ‘Bulky’ is the synonym of‘Fat’ and similarly ‘Happiness’ is the synonym of ‘joy’.
Now, we can say that we have discussed almost all type of analogy to be asked frequently in the examinations. But examinees must prepare for any surprise kind of problems while solving the problems under this segment. But by practicing more & more, you can be master in solving these problems. Only keep in mind the following:
- You must have strong word power.
- You must have good understanding & reasoning ability.
- You must have good general knowledge.
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