Plant Cell And Animal Cell


Plant Cell And Animal Cell

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A cell is a tiny structure, which cannot be seen with naked eyes. A membrane surrounds cells, which is commonly known as the cell membrane. The function of a cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surrounding.

Plant Cell : 

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. These distinctive features include the following,

The Cell Wall: It is a rigid layer which is composed of cellulose, glycoproteins, lignin, pectin, and hemicellulose. It is located outside the cell membrane. It comprises of Protein, polysaccharides, and cellulose. The primary function of the cell wall is to protect and provide structural support to the cell. Plant cell wall is also involved in protecting the cell against mechanical stress and other infections.

The formation of the cell wall is guided by microtubules.  It consists of three layers the primary, secondary and the middle lamella. The primary cell wall is formed by cellulose laid down by enzymes.

Cell membrane:  It is the semi-permeable membrane present within the cell wall, composed of a thin layer of protein and fat.   The cell membrane plays an important role in regulating the entry and exit of specific substances within the cell.

Nucleus: It is a membrane-bound structure. The vital function of a nucleus is to store DNA or hereditary material which include cell division, metabolism, and growth.

  • Nucleolus: It manufactures cell’s protein-producing structures and ribosomes.
  • Nucleopore: Nuclear membrane is perforated with holes called as nucleopore that allows proteins and nucleic acids.

Plastids: They are membrane-bound organelles that comprise of own DNA. They are necessary to store starch, to carry out the process of photosynthesis and in the synthesis of many molecules that are required for cellular building blocks. Some of the vital types of plastids and their functions are  stated below:

Leucoplasts: They are found in non-photosynthetic tissues of plants. They are used for the storage of protein, lipid, and starch.

Animal Cell : 

The cell is the fundamental unit of life. All living organisms on planet earth are composed unicellular (single cell) (or) multicellular (many cells). Cells range in its size from a millimeter to microns and generally varies in their shapes.Few cells are flat, oval, rod, curved, spherical, concave, rectangular, and various other shapes are also found. Most of the cells are microscopic in size and can only be seen under the microscope.

Some cells are fairly long and large. For example, a neuron in the human body is approximately 100 microns or 1 meter long and the ostrich egg is the largest cell which ranges from  14-15 cm long and 12-13 cm wide.

Animal cells are a typical eukaryotic cell with a membrane-bound nucleus with the presence of DNA inside the nucleus. They also comprise of other organelles and cellular structures which carry out specific functions necessary for the cell to function properly.

The Animal cell is smaller than the plant cell which varies in their sizes and is irregular in shape. It comprises of the following parts:

Cell Membrane: A thin semipermeable membrane layer of protein and fats surrounding the cell. It helps in owning the cell together and permits entry and exits of nutrients into the cell.

Nuclear Membrane: It is the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus.

Nucleus: A celestial body containing several organelles including the nucleolus. It contains DNA and other cell’s hereditary information.

CentrosomeIt is a small organelle found near to the nucleus which has a thick center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes are where microtubules are produced.

Lysosome (Cell Vesicles): They are round organelle surrounded by a membrane comprising of digestive enzymes which help in digestion, excretion and in cell renewal process.

Cytoplasm:  A jelly-like double membrane organelles found outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.

Golgi Body:  A flat smooth layered, sac-like organelle which is located near the nucleus and involved in manufacturing, storing, packing and transporting the particles throughout the cell.

Mitochondrion: They are spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. They are the powerhouse of a cell as they play an important role in releasing energy.

Ribosome:  They are small organelles made up of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules and they are the sites of protein synthesis.

Vacuole: A membrane-bound organelles present inside a cell involved in maintaining shape and storing water, food, wastes, etc.

Nucleopore: They are tiny holes present in the nuclear membrane which are involved in the movement of nucleic acids and proteins within the cell.

Plant Cell Animal Cell 
Cell Wall   Cell wall made of cellulose is present in almost all cells. Cell wall is absent.
  Plastids Plastids like leucoplasts, chloroplast and chromoplasts are present. No plastids found.
Chloroplasts   Plants cells have chloroplasts to prepare their own food. Chloroplasts completely absent.
  Vacuoles Cell sap containing vacuoles are present. Vacuoles are usually absent or one or more small vacuoles are seen.
 Lysosomes Lysosomes not evident. Lysosomes occur in cytoplasm.
  Nucleus Due to the presence of the vacoule at the centre of the cell, nucleus may be located at the edge of the cell. Nucleus is usually located centrally.
  Golgi bodies   Plant cells have many simpler units of golgi complex, called dictyosomes. Animal cells have a single highly elaborate golgi complex.
  Endoplasmic reticulum Present Present
  Ribosomes   Present  Present 
  Mitochondria Present  Present 
  Centrioles   Present only in lower plant forms. Present 
  Microtubules/ microfilaments   Present  Present 
 Flagella  May be found in some cells. May be found in some cells.
 Cilia  Very rare Present
  Nutrition Can prepare own food through photosynthesis. Cannot make their own food. They depend directly or indirectly on plants for their food.
  Locomotion Most plants do not exhibit movement. Most animals exhibit locomotion
  Growth and development Keep growing throughout their life and are localized in the apical meristem. Growth stops after maturation, but body cells are replaced periodically .
  Cell shape and structure   Rigid, fixes rectangular shape. Lack rigidity, are round and irregular shape.
  Starch grains   Present Are not present.