**Physics Important Terms**

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Dear Readers, Here we have given the list of **Physics Important Terms **for competitive Exams. In this topic, we have given about the Physics Important Terms and definitions**.** Candidates those who are preparing for the exams make use of it.

**List Of Physics Important Terms And their definitions**

S.No | Word | Definition |
---|---|---|

1 | Acceleration | The rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time |

2 | Angular Momentum | A measure of the momentum of a body in rotational motion about its centre of mass |

3 | Alloy | The mixture of metal with other metal or other elements. |

4 | Ammeter | An instrument that is used to measure current. |

5 | Amorphous solid | Its a type solid which do not have definite geometrical shape. Or its non-crystalline solid. |

6 | Ampere | A unit that describes the rate of flow of electricity (current). |

7 | Amplifier | It is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current). |

8 | Amplitude | Height of a wave measured from its center (normal) position. |

9 | Alpha particle | Consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus, which is classically produced in the process of alpha decay, but may be produced also in other ways and given the same name. |

10 | Astronomical unit | It is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. |

11 | Astrophysics | The branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe |

12 | Atom | A basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons |

13 | Atomic mass unit | one-twelfth the mass of an atom of the isotope 12⁄6C |

14 | Avogadro's Number | The number of molecules in exactly 12g of carbon-12, equaling 6.022 x 1023. |

15 | Battery | Battery is combination of two or more cells (electric), which produces electricity. |

16 | Beam | A structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending |

17 | Beta particle | High-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei. |

18 | Biophysics | An interdisciplinary science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems |

19 | Black hole | A region of space-time where gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. |

20 | Coulomb | The SI derived unit of electric charge. It is defined as the charge transported by a steady current of one ampere in one second. |

21 | Collision | A collision in physics occurs when any two objects bump into each other. |

22 | Classical mechanics | A sub-field of mechanics that is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the action of a system of forces. |

23 | Celsius scale | A scale and unit of measurement for temperature, also known as Centigrade. |

24 | Center of gravity | The point in a body around which the resultant torque due to gravity forces vanish. Near the surface of the earth, where the gravity acts downward as a parallel force field, the center of gravity and the center of mass are the same. |

25 | Center of mass | A distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero. |

26 | Convection | The transfer of heat by the actual transfer of matter |

27 | Cyclotron | A type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path |

28 | Density | The mass density or density of a material is its mass per unit volume. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume. |

29 | Distance | A numerical description of how far apart objects are. |

30 | Displacement | In physics, displacement refers to an object's overall change in position. It is a vector quantity. |

31 | Elasticity | A physical property of materials which return to their original shape after they are deformed. |

32 | Electric charge | A physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter. There exist two types of electric charges, called positive and negative. |

33 | Electric circuit | An electrical network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. |

34 | Electric current | A flow of electric charge through a conductive medium. |

35 | Electric field | The region of space surrounding electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. |

36 | Electric power | The rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. |

37 | Electronics | A field that deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies. |

38 | Energy | Energy is the ability to do work. The standard unit of measure for energy is the joule. |

39 | Entropy | a quantity which describes the randomness of a substance or system |

40 | First law of motion | The first law of motion states that any object in motion will continue to move in the same direction and speed unless external forces act on it. |

41 | Force | Force is the measurement of a push or pull on an object. Force is a vector measured in newtons. |

42 | Friction | Friction is the resistance of motion when one object rubs against another. It is a force and is measured in newtons. |

43 | Fusion | A nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus. |

44 | Gravity | Gravity is a force caused when the mass of physical bodies attract each other. On Earth gravity pulls at objects with an acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. |

45 | Gamma ray | Electromagnetic radiation of high frequency and therefore high energy. |

46 | Impulse | An impulse is a change in momentum. |

47 | Heat | (or heat transfer/heat flow) Energy transferred from one body to another by thermal interaction. |

48 | Ion | An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge. |

49 | Ionic bond | A type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. |

50 | Ionization | The process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or ions. |

51 | Isotope | Variants of a particular chemical element. While all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons, each isotope differs from the others in its number of neutrons. |

52 | Joule | The joule is the standard unit of measure for energy and work. |

53 | Kelvin | A unit of measurement for temperature. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero. |

54 | Kinetic energy | Kinetic energy is the energy an object has due to its motion. It is a scalar quantity calculated using the formula KE = ½ * m * v2, where m = mass and v = velocity. |

55 | Light | Visible light (commonly referred to simply as light) is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight. |

56 | Magnetic field | A mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field. |

57 | Magnetism | A property of materials that respond to an applied magnetic field. |

58 | Mass balance | An application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems, also called 'material balance'. |

59 | Mass density | A materials mass per unit volume, also just called density. |

60 | Molar mass | A physical property of matter. It is defined as the mass of a given substance divided by its amount of substance. The unit for molar mass is g/mol. |

61 | Molecule | An electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds. |

62 | Momentum | Momentum is a measurement of mass in motion. Momentum is equal to the mass times the velocity of an object. It is a vector measured in newton-seconds. |

63 | NanoTechnology | The manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. |

64 | Neutrino | An electrically neutral subatomic particle. |

65 | Nuclear physics | The field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei. |

66 | Newton | The newton is the standard unit of measure for force. |

67 | Optics | The branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. |

68 | Ohm | The SI derived unit of electrical resistance. |

69 | Pascal | The pascal is the standard unit of measure for pressure. |

70 | Photon | An elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. |

71 | Potential energy | Potential energy is the energy stored by an object due to its state or position. It is measured in joules. |

72 | Physics | it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves. |

73 | Power | Power is a measurement of the rate at which energy is used. Power is calculated by dividing work over time. The standard unit for power is the watt. |

74 | Power (electric) | The rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. |

75 | Pressure | The ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed. |

76 | Probability | A measure of the expectation that an event will occur or a statement is true. |

77 | Pressure | Pressure is the force over a given area. Pressure is measured in pascals. |

78 | Quark | An elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter |

79 | Quantum mechanics | A branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. |

80 | Refraction | Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium. |

81 | Rotational energy | (or angular kinetic energy) The kinetic energy due to the rotation of an object and forms part of its total kinetic energy. |

82 | Scalar | A scalar is a measurement that only measures the magnitude. Unlike a vector, a scalar does not have direction. |

83 | Speed | Speed is the measurement of how fast on object moves relative to a reference point. It is a scalar quantity measured by distance over time. |

84 | Science | A systematic enterprise that builds and organises knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. |

85 | Sound | A mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing. |

86 | Superconductor | A phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. |

87 | Temperature | A physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold |

88 | Vector | A vector is a quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction. |

89 | Velocity | Velocity is the rate of change in an object's position. Velocity is a vector quantity. The magnitude of velocity is the object's speed. |

90 | Wave | A disturbance or oscillation that travels through spacetime, accompanied by a transfer of energy. |

91 | Wavelength | The wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave |

92 | Wind | The flow of gases on a large scale. |

93 | X Ray | A high energy photon (between 100 electron volts (eV) and 100 keV), |

94 | Young’s modulus | a measure of the stiffness of a solid material which defines the relationship between stress and strain. |

95 | Zeeman effect | The effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field by the lifting of degeneracy in electronic states. |

**List Of Important Static GK Topics For Competitive Examination**