Physics Important Terms and their Definitions


Physics Important Terms

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Dear Readers, Here we have given the list of Physics Important Terms for competitive Exams. In this topic, we have given about the Physics Important Terms and definitions. Candidates those who are preparing for the exams make use of it.

List Of Physics Important Terms And their definitions

1AccelerationThe rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time
2Angular MomentumA measure of the momentum of a body in rotational motion about its centre of mass
3AlloyThe mixture of metal with other metal or other elements.
4Ammeter An instrument that is used to measure current.
5Amorphous solid  Its a type solid which do not have definite geometrical shape. Or its non-crystalline solid.
6Ampere A unit that describes the rate of flow of electricity (current).
7AmplifierIt is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
8Amplitude Height of a wave measured from its center (normal) position.
9Alpha particle Consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus, which is classically produced in the process of alpha decay, but may be produced also in other ways and given the same name.
10Astronomical unitIt is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
11Astrophysics The branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe
12Atom A basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons
13Atomic mass unit one-twelfth the mass of an atom of the isotope ​12⁄6C
14Avogadro's NumberThe number of molecules in exactly 12g of carbon-12, equaling 6.022 x 1023.
15Battery Battery is combination of two or more cells (electric), which produces electricity.
16Beam A structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending
17Beta particle High-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei.
18Biophysics An interdisciplinary science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems
19Black hole A region of space-time where gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.
20Coulomb The SI derived unit of electric charge. It is defined as the charge transported by a steady current of one ampere in one second.
21Collision A collision in physics occurs when any two objects bump into each other. 
22Classical mechanics A sub-field of mechanics that is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the action of a system of forces.
23Celsius scale A scale and unit of measurement for temperature, also known as Centigrade.
24Center of gravityThe point in a body around which the resultant torque due to gravity forces vanish. Near the surface of the earth, where the gravity acts downward as a parallel force field, the center of gravity and the center of mass are the same.
25Center of mass A distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero.
26Convection The transfer of heat by the actual transfer of matter
27Cyclotron A type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path
28Density The mass density or density of a material is its mass per unit volume. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume.
29Distance A numerical description of how far apart objects are.
30Displacement In physics, displacement refers to an object's overall change in position. It is a vector quantity. 
31Elasticity A physical property of materials which return to their original shape after they are deformed.
32Electric charge A physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter. There exist two types of electric charges, called positive and negative.
33Electric circuit An electrical network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current.
34Electric currentA flow of electric charge through a conductive medium.
35Electric field The region of space surrounding electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields.
36Electric power The rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
37ElectronicsA field that deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies.
38Energy Energy is the ability to do work. The standard unit of measure for energy is the joule. 
39Entropya quantity which describes the randomness of a substance or system
40First law of motion The first law of motion states that any object in motion will continue to move in the same direction and speed unless external forces act on it. 
41Force  Force is the measurement of a push or pull on an object. Force is a vector measured in newtons. 
42Friction Friction is the resistance of motion when one object rubs against another. It is a force and is measured in newtons. 
43FusionA nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus.
44Gravity Gravity is a force caused when the mass of physical bodies attract each other. On Earth gravity pulls at objects with an acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. 
45Gamma ray Electromagnetic radiation of high frequency and therefore high energy.
46Impulse An impulse is a change in momentum. 
47Heat(or heat transfer/heat flow) Energy transferred from one body to another by thermal interaction.
48Ion An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge.
49Ionic bond A type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
50Ionization The process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or ions.
51Isotope Variants of a particular chemical element. While all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons, each isotope differs from the others in its number of neutrons.
52Joule The joule is the standard unit of measure for energy and work. 
53KelvinA unit of measurement for temperature. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero.
54Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy an object has due to its motion. It is a scalar quantity calculated using the formula KE = ½ * m * v2, where m = mass and v = velocity. 
55LightVisible light (commonly referred to simply as light) is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight.
56Magnetic field A mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field.
57MagnetismA property of materials that respond to an applied magnetic field.
58Mass balance An application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems, also called 'material balance'.
59Mass density A materials mass per unit volume, also just called density.
60Molar mass A physical property of matter. It is defined as the mass of a given substance divided by its amount of substance. The unit for molar mass is g/mol.
61Molecule An electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds. 
62MomentumMomentum is a measurement of mass in motion. Momentum is equal to the mass times the velocity of an object. It is a vector measured in newton-seconds. 
63NanoTechnologyThe manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale.
64Neutrino An electrically neutral subatomic particle.
65Nuclear physics  The field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei.
66Newton The newton is the standard unit of measure for force. 
67Optics The branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
68Ohm The SI derived unit of electrical resistance.
69Pascal The pascal is the standard unit of measure for pressure. 
70PhotonAn elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.
71Potential energy  Potential energy is the energy stored by an object due to its state or position. It is measured in joules. 
72Physics it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
73PowerPower is a measurement of the rate at which energy is used. Power is calculated by dividing work over time. The standard unit for power is the watt. 
74Power (electric) The rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
75PressureThe ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed.
76Probability A measure of the expectation that an event will occur or a statement is true.
77PressurePressure is the force over a given area. Pressure is measured in pascals. 
78Quark An elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter
79Quantum mechanicsA branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant.
80RefractionRefraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
81Rotational energy(or angular kinetic energy) The kinetic energy due to the rotation of an object and forms part of its total kinetic energy.
82Scalar A scalar is a measurement that only measures the magnitude. Unlike a vector, a scalar does not have direction. 
83SpeedSpeed is the measurement of how fast on object moves relative to a reference point. It is a scalar quantity measured by distance over time.
84Science A systematic enterprise that builds and organises knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
85Sound A mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing.
86Superconductor A phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
87TemperatureA physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold
88Vector A vector is a quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction. 
89Velocity Velocity is the rate of change in an object's position. Velocity is a vector quantity. The magnitude of velocity is the object's speed. 
90Wave A disturbance or oscillation that travels through spacetime, accompanied by a transfer of energy.
91WavelengthThe wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave
92WindThe flow of gases on a large scale.
93X Ray A high energy photon (between 100 electron volts (eV) and 100 keV),
94Young’s modulus a measure of the stiffness of a solid material which defines the relationship between stress and strain.
95Zeeman effectThe effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field by the lifting of degeneracy in electronic states.

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