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Number system

Number system

If base or radix of a number system is â€˜râ€™, then the numbers present in that number system are ranging from zero to r-1. The total numbers present in that number system is â€˜râ€™. So, we will get various number systems, by choosing the values of radix as greater than or equal to two.

In this chapter, let us discuss about theÂ popular number systemsÂ and how to represent a number in the respective number system. The following number systems are the most commonly used.

• Decimal Number system
• Binary Number system
• Octal Number system

Decimal Number System

TheÂ baseÂ or radix of Decimal number system isÂ 10. So, the numbers ranging from 0 to 9 are used in this number system. The part of the number that lies to the left of theÂ decimal pointÂ is known as integer part. Similarly, the part of the number that lies to the right of the decimal point is known as fractional part.

In this number system, the successive positions to the left of the decimal point having weights of 100, 101, 102, 103Â and so on. Similarly, the successive positions to the right of the decimal point having weights of 10-1, 10-2, 10-3and so on. That means, each position has specific weight, which isÂ power of base 10

Example

Consider theÂ decimal number 1358.246. Integer part of this number is 1358 and fractional part of this number is 0.246. The digits 8, 5, 3 and 1 have weights of 100, 101, 102Â and 103Â respectively. Similarly, the digits 2, 4 and 6 have weights of 10-1, 10-2Â and 10-3Â respectively.

Mathematically, we can write it as

1358.246 = (1 Ã— 103) + (3 Ã— 102) + (5 Ã— 101) + (8 Ã— 100) + (2 Ã— 10-1) +

(4 Ã— 10-2) + (6 Ã— 10-3)

After simplifying the right hand side terms, we will get the decimal number, which is on left hand side.

Binary Number System

All digital circuits and systems use this binary number system. TheÂ baseÂ or radix of this number system isÂ 2. So, the numbers 0 and 1 are used in this number system.

The part of the number, which lies to the left of theÂ binary pointÂ is known as integer part. Similarly, the part of the number, which lies to the right of the binary point is known as fractional part.

In this number system, the successive positions to the left of the binary point having weights of 20, 21, 22, 23Â and so on. Similarly, the successive positions to the right of the binary point having weights of 2-1, 2-2, 2-3Â and so on. That means, each position has specific weight, which isÂ power of base 2.

Example

Consider theÂ binary number 1101.011. Integer part of this number is 1101 and fractional part of this number is 0.011. The digits 1, 0, 1 and 1 of integer part have weights of 20, 21, 22, 23Â respectively. Similarly, the digits 0, 1 and 1 of fractional part have weights of 2-1, 2-2, 2-3Â respectively.

Mathematically, we can write it as

1101.011 = (1 Ã— 23) + (1 Ã— 22) + (0 Ã— 21) + (1 Ã— 20) + (0 Ã— 2-1) +

(1 Ã— 2-2) + (1 Ã— 2-3)

After simplifying the right hand side terms, we will get a decimal number, which is an equivalent of binary number on left hand side.

Octal Number System

TheÂ baseÂ or radix of octal number system isÂ 8. So, the numbers ranging from 0 to 7 are used in this number system. The part of the number that lies to the left of theÂ octal pointÂ is known as integer part. Similarly, the part of the number that lies to the right of the octal point is known as fractional part.

In this number system, the successive positions to the left of the octal point having weights of 80, 81, 82, 83Â and so on. Similarly, the successive positions to the right of the octal point having weights of 8-1, 8-2, 8-3Â and so on. That means, each position has specific weight, which isÂ power of base 8.

Example

Consider theÂ octal number 1457.236. Integer part of this number is 1457 and fractional part of this number is 0.236. The digits 7, 5, 4 and 1 have weights of 80, 81, 82Â and 83Â respectively. Similarly, the digits 2, 3 and 6 have weights of 8-1, 8-2, 8-3Â respectively.

Mathematically, we can write it as

1457.236 = (1 Ã— 83) + (4 Ã— 82) + (5 Ã— 81) + (7 Ã— 80) + (2 Ã— 8-1) +

(3 Ã— 8-2) + (6 Ã— 8-3)

After simplifying the right hand side terms, we will get a decimal number, which is an equivalent of octal number on left hand side.

TheÂ baseÂ or radix of Hexa-decimal number system isÂ 16. So, the numbers ranging from 0 to 9 and the letters from A to F are used in this number system. The decimal equivalent of Hexa-decimal digits from A to F are 10 to 15.

The part of the number, which lies to the left of theÂ hexadecimal pointÂ is known as integer part. Similarly, the part of the number, which lies to the right of the Hexa-decimal point is known as fractional part.

In this number system, the successive positions to the left of the Hexa-decimal point having weights of 160, 161, 162, 163Â and so on. Similarly, the successive positions to the right of the Hexa-decimal point having weights of 16-1, 16-2, 16-3Â and so on. That means, each position has specific weight, which isÂ power of base 16.

Example

Consider theÂ Hexa-decimal number 1A05.2C4. Integer part of this number is 1A05 and fractional part of this number is 0.2C4. The digits 5, 0, A and 1 have weights of 160, 161, 162Â and 163Â respectively. Similarly, the digits 2, C and 4 have weights of 16-1, 16-2Â and 16-3Â respectively.

Mathematically, we can write it as

1A05.2C4 = (1 Ã— 163) + (10 Ã— 162) + (0 Ã— 161) + (5 Ã— 160) + (2 Ã— 16-1) + (12 Ã— 16-2) + (4 Ã— 16-3)

After simplifying the right hand side terms, we will get a decimal number, which is an equivalent of Hexa-decimal number on left hand side.