Subaltern Movements of Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries Study Material


 Subaltern Movements of Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries study Material

TABLE 3.1 Tribal Movements in Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Name of the Movement Area Affected Year Leader(s) Course of the Movement and Consequence

Nanbhum and Barabhum (West Bengal)

1768, 1832


Not available

Defiance of the British authority by Chuars; suppression of the revolt by the British through use of force as well as conciliatory measures

Bhils Khandesh (Maharashtra) 1818, 1848 Not available

Beginning of revolt of Bhils with the British occupation of khandesh and their defiance of the British for 30 years; final suppression through military operations combined with conciliatory measures


Singhbhum and Chota Nagpur

1820, 1822, 1832 Not available

Occupation of Singbhum by the British and revolt of the Hos, its suppression after extensive military operations; their revolt again in 1832


Sahyadri Hills (Gujarat and Maharashtra)

1824, 1828, 1839, and 1844-1848 Not available

Repeated revolts of kolis and their final suppression after the capture of all their leaders


Khasi Hills (Assam and Meghalaya)


Tirut Singh and Bar Manik (Chiefs of Nounklow and Molim, respectively)

Unsuccessful attempts of the khasis to drive away the British from their territory



1830-1839 Not available

Suppression of 1830 revolt by Captain Neufville; murder of Colonel While (British political Agent of Assam) by Singhphos in 1839 but ultimately defeated by the British


Chota Nagpur (Jharkand)


Buddoo Bhagat

Suppression of the revolt after extensive military operations by the British and death


Rampa Region (Chodavarn in Andra Pradesh)

1840, 1845, 1848, 1861-1862, 1879-1880 Alluri Sitaramaraju

Repeated revolts of the koyas the major ones being the 1879-1880 and 1922-1924 revolts; capture and execution of Raju by the British in May 1924


Khondmals (Orissa)

1846-1848 Chakra Bisayi

The first two revolts led by Bisayi were suppressed with great difficulty by the British


Rajmahal Hills (Bihar)

1855-1856 Sidhu and Kanhu

Revolt of Santhals and establishment of their own government (July 1855); defeat of the British under Major Burrough by Santhals transfer of the disturbed area to the military and final suppression of the revolt by the end of 1856: creation of separate district of Santhal Paragans to preventSanthals from revolting again in future


Panch Mahals (Gujarat)

1858-1859, 1868 Rupsing and Joria Bhagat

Revolt of Naikdas under Rupsingh in 1858 and conclusion of peace between the British and Rupsing in 1859; their revolt again in 1868 and establishment of a kingdom with Joria as the spiritual head and Rupsing as temporal head; suppression of the revolt after the capture and execution of Rupsing and Joria

Kacha Nagas Mundas

Cacher (Assam) Chota Nagpur

1882, 1899-1900 Sambhudan Birsa Munda

Foundation of a new religious sect by Birsa, with Singh Bonga as the only true God. The British fears over Birsa’s preachings among Mundas and arrest and imprisonment of Birsa. Release of Birsa and revival of his doctrine; revolt of Mundas and their attack on churches and police stations (1899); defeat of Mundas by the British (jan 1900), and capture of Birsa (he died of cholera in jail in June 1900)


Banswara and Dungapur (southern Rajasthan)

Govind Guru

It began as a purification movement but later developed into a political movement; failure of their attempts to set up a Bhil Raj due to British armed intervention

Oraons Chotanagpur 1913 Jatra Bhagat
Thadoe Kukis Manipur 1914-1718 Jadonang and Rani Gaidinliu 1917-1719

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TABLE 3.2Caste and Peasant Movements

Name Year Area Leader
Nair Movement 1891-1919 Travancore

C. V. Raman Pillai and K. Ramakrishna Pillai

Nadar Movement 1910 Tamil Nadu
Justice Movement 1915-1916 Sounth India

C. N. Mudaliyar, T. M. Nair and P. T. Chetti

Self Respect Movement 1925 Tamil Nadu

E. V. Ramaswami Naicker (Periya)

Ezhava Movement 1928 Kerala

Nanu Asan (Narayan Guru)

Satyashodhak Movement 1872 Maharashtra Jyotiba Phule
Mahar Movement 1920 Maharashtra B. R. Amberkar
Kaivartas 1897 Midnapur (Bengal) NA
Namshudras 1901 Faridpur (Bengal0 NA
Indigo Movement 1859-1860 Bengal Dina Bandhu Mitra
Pabna Movement 1872-1885 East Bengal

Keshab Chandra Roy and Sambhunath Pal

Deccan Riots 1875 Maharashtra
Punjab Peasant Movement 1890-1900 Punjab
Champaran Movement 1917 Bihar

Gandhi, Rajendra Prasad, A. N. Sinha, J. B. Kriplani, Mazhar-ul Haq and Mahadev Desai


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Name the Movement Area affected Year Leader(s) Main Cause(s)

Course of the Movement and Consequence

Revot of Kattabomman Tirunelveli 1792-1799

Veerapandya Kattabomman (Ruler of Panchalakurichi)

Attempts of the British to force Kattabomman to accept their suzerainty and his refusal. British occupation of Orissa. (1803); resentment of, thePaiks (a militia class occupying rent-free lands ‘under the zamindars) against British land and land revenue policies

Defiance of the British by Kattabomman for 7 years; his final capture and execution by the British (1799); annexation of his territory by the British (1799)

Rebellion of the Paiks Orissa 1804-1806

First under the Raja of Khurda and later under Jagabandhu

The British occupation of Orissa (1803); resentment of the Paiks (a militia class occupying rent-free lands under the zamindars) against the British land revenue policies

Unsuccessful attempt of the Raja of Khudra to organise a rebellion with the help of the Paiks and confiscation of his territory by the British (1804); continuous unrest among the Paiks between 1804 and 1806; rise of the Paiks under Jaga-bandhu and their occupation of puri after defeating the British force (1817); final suppression of the movement by force and conciliatory measure by the British

Revolt of velu Thambi Travancore 1808-1809

Velu Thambi (Diwan of Travancore)

Financial burden imposed on the state by the British through the subsidiary system; the high handedness of the British resident there and the British demand for the removal of Dewan

Beginning of the war between the two sides (December 1808); fall of Trivandrum (capital of Travancore) to the British (February 1809); death of Velu Thambi in forest due to serious injuries

Revolt of Rao Bharmal

Kutch and Kathiawar


Rao Bharmal (ruler of Kutch)

Anti-British feeling due to the British expansionist – policy and their interference in internal affairs of Kutch

Final defeat and deposal of Rao Bharmal; imposition of Subsidiary Treaty on Kutch

Revolt of Ramosis Poona 1822-1829

Chittur Singh and Umaji

The British annexation of Peshwa’s territory (1818), resulting in large-scale unemployment among Ramosis (under the Peshwa, they served in lower ranks of police)

Revolt of the Ramosis under Chittur Singh (1822-24); establishment of peace by the British by pardoning all the crimes of the Ramosis and granting them lands and recruiting them as hill police

Kittur Rising

Kittur (near Dharwar in Karnataka)


Channamma and Rayappa

Death of Shjivalinga Rudra Desai (chief) of Kittur (1824), leaving no male to recognize the adopted issue; refusal of the British to accept the son as the Desai and assumption of administration of Kittur by the British

Revolt of channamrna (widow of late Desai) in 1824 and murder of the English officers including Thackeray (collector of Dharwar); conquest of Kittur and its annexation by the British. Revolt of the people of Kittur under Rayappa who declared independence set up the adopted boy as the Desai (1829); capture and execution of Rayappa by the British and death of Channamma in Dharwar prison.

Sambalpur Outbreaks

Sambalpur (Orissa)

1827-1840 Surendra Sai

Frequent interference of the British in the internal affairs of Sambalpur. such as the issue of succession

Death of Maharaja Sai (ruler) and outbreak of civil war, succession of Mohan Kumari (widow of the late Raja) with die support of the British and revolt of other claimants under Surcndra Sai; final imprisonment of Surendra Sai by British (1840)

Satara Disturbances Satar (Maharashtra) 1840-1841

Dhar Rao Pawar and Narsing Dattatreya Patkar

Deposal and banishment of Praiap Singh, the popular ruler of Satara by the British

Revolt of the people of Satara under Dhar Rao in 1840, their revolt under Narsing and seizure of Badami in 1841; defeat and capture of Narsing by the British (he was transported for life)

Bundela revolt

Sagar and Damoh (Bundelkhand)


Madhukar Sha and Jawahir Singh

Resentment against the Brftish land revenue policy

Revolt of the Bundelas under Shah and Singh; murder of police officers and disruption of the British administration; capture and execution of Madhukar Shah and Singh by the British

Gadkari rebellion

Kolhapur (Maharashtra)

1844-1845 Not available

Assumption of direct administration of kolhapur by British and reforms of D. K. Pandit, resentment of the Gadkaris (a militia class who had earlier held revenue-free lands in return for their services to the ruler) against the revenue reforms

Revolt of the Gadkaris followed by a popular revolt in the city of kolhapur and all other parts of the state of kolhapur; final suppression of the movement by the British

Satavandi Revolt

Satavandi (Maharashtra)


Phond Savant (leading noble and Anna Sahib) (heir apparent)

Deposal of Khen Savant (ruler of satavancli) and appointment of a British officer to administer the state; resentment of the people against the British system of administration

Raju rebellion

Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)

1827-1833 Birabhadra Raju

Birabhadra was disposed of his estate by the British in return for a small amount of pension

Revolt of Birabhadra and his defiance of the British authority till he was captured

Palakonda Outbreak

Palakonda (Andhra Pradesh)

1831-1832 Zamindar of Palakonda

Attachment of the property of zamindar for non-payment of revenue as he failed to clear the arrears of revenues to the British

Revolt of the zamindar, suppression of the revolt and forfeiture of Palakonda estate to the British

Parlakimedi Outbreak Parlakimedi (Orissa) 1829-1835

Jagannath Gajapti Narayan Rao

Attachment of his zamindari for failure to clear the arrears by the British in 1827

Revolt of the zamindar, appointment of Mr Russel as the commissioner, final suppression of the movement after large-scale military campaign in 1837 Revolt of the zamindar followed by a popular rising of the people; final suppression of the movement


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