Mughal Art, Architecture & Literature Study material
Mughal Art, Architecture & Literature
Humayun appreciated the collection ot illuminated manuscripts. He saw the artists working when he was staying at the court of the Persian ruler. When he was at Tabriz, met two young painters. Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Sarnad, Later on, both these artists met him in Kabul. Abdus Sarnad taught Akbar the art of drawing. Though Akbar himself illiterate, he had great respect for knowledge. He commissioned the illustrations of many literary and religious texts. He invited a large number of artists to his court. The majority of these artists were Hindus. This made Akbar the original founder of the Mughal school of painting.
The famous painters in Akbar’s court were Mir Sayyid Ali, Abdul Samad and Baswan, a Hindu. Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdul Sapad (rained the artists in all the technical details of Persian art. Many Hindus like Baswan, Misldtu and Daswant achieved great positions in his court as artists. Abul Fazi in his Ain-i-Akbari has praised them very high. Out of 169 full page illustrations of Razm (Mahabharatat Baswan has been mentioned in 12 of the best miniatures illustrations. In the Persian version of the Ramuyana too. India artists could showcase some of their dream figure types and details of landscape. Under the guidance of Mix Sayyid Ali and Abd-al-Samad, the royal atelier of painters and calligraphers got training. They first tried to complete the pictures for the earliest Mughal illustrated manuscript known as Dastani-Amir Hamza.
Loosening of the Mughal
Grip over India
The destabilised Mughal Empire witnessed destruction at the hands of the Persian king Nadir Shah, in 1738-1739. He ordered a general massacre of the residents of Delhi, it resifted into the death of nearly 30,000 people. Another threat to the Mughal Empire emerged from the Afghons of Rohilkhand, to north-east of Delhi. By the middle of the 18th century, the Rohillas declared their independence from the Mughal rule. The Jats also revolted against the centrel rule. Taking full advantage of this unstable situation, the East India Company started consolidating its military capabilities. They plotted with the Hindu traders and money lenders against the Nawab Sirajuddullah of Bengal to take control over his province. The Battle of Plassey which was fought in 1757, is regarded as a major turning point for the British in the subcontinent, made the way for the British rule in Bengal. Gradually, the entire India finally came under the company’s rule. In the 19th century Muslims like Syed Ahmad Brailvi and Shah Ismail carried out jihad against the Sikhs, as did Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan in the Deccan against the British. They were unsuccessful in their attempts to slop the decline of the Muslim rule. The final blow came after ihewar of 1857, when the Mughal rule was officially ended and India came under the direct rule of the British crown.
where they received intelligent patronage from the emperor The an and architecture of this period arc a combination of Persian components meshed with original Indian (Hindu and Buddhist) architecture. Many tombs, mausoleums mosques, palaces and forts are testimonies to the grandeur and grace of Mughal architecture. The architecture generally followed erecting complete buildings of stone and marble and then decorating the walls and ceilings with pietra dura (style of decorating walls and ceilings with carved floral designs set in the semi-precious stones).
Fatehpur Sikri, with a magnificent 176 ft high Buland Darwaza (grand entry door). Jami Masjid (Mosque), Jodha Bid’s Palace, Diwan-e-aam, Diwan-e-khas Panch Mahal, Jama Masjid (Delhi)-Akbar: Moti Masjid (Agra)-Shahjahan; Mosques at Sambhal, Kabul Bagh and Agra-Birbal; Red Fort and its Diwan-e-aam, Diwan-e-khas and Rang Mahal (Delhi)-Shahjahan; Agra Fort-Akbar,Lahore Fort-Akbar, Allahabad Fort-Akbar; Humayun’s.
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