Monsoon PDF Download


Monsoon PDF Download

  • The English monsoon came from Portuguese ultimately from Arabic mawsim “perhaps partly via early modern Dutch monsoon
  • Monsoonis traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.
  • The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and Asia-Australian monsoons. The inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated.
  • The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area.

History :

Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateauafter the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago.Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago. More recently, studies of plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a timing of the monsoon beginning 15–20 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program.

Strength Of Impact :

The impact of monsoon on the local weather is different from place to place. In some places there is just a likelihood of having a little more or less rain. In other places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into vivid green grasslands where all sorts of plants and crops can flourish.

Process :

During warmer months sunlight heats the surfaces of both land and oceans, but land temperatures rise more quickly. As the land’s surface becomes warmer, the air above it expands and an area of low pressure develops. Meanwhile, the ocean remains at a lower temperature than the land, and the air above it retains a higher pressure. This difference in pressure causes sea breezes to blow from the ocean to the land, bringing moist air inland. This moist air rises to a higher altitude over land and then it flows back toward the ocean (thus completing the cycle). However, when the air rises, and while it is still over the land, the air cools. This decreases the air’s ability to hold water, and this causes precipitation over the land. This is why summer monsoons cause so much rain over land.

Summary Of Table :

LocationMonsoon/sub-systemAverage date of arrivalAverage date of withdrawalNotes
Northern MexicoNorth American/Gulf of California-Southwest USAlate May[24]Septemberincomplete wind reversal, waves
Tucson, ArizonaNorth American/Gulf of California-Southwest USAearly July[25]Septemberincomplete wind reversal, waves
Central AmericaCentral/South American MonsoonApril[26]October[26]true monsoon
Amazon BrazilSouth American monsoonSeptember[26]May[26]
Southeast BrazilSouth American monsoonNovember[26]March[26]
West AfricaWest AfricanJune 22[27]Sept [28]  /October [27]waves
Southeast AfricaSoutheast Africa monsoon w/ HarmattanJan[28]March[28]
Kelantan, MalaysiaIndo-Australian/Borneo-AustralianOctoberMarch
Phuket, ThailandIndo-AustralianFebruary/MarchDecember
Bangkok, ThailandIndo-Australian/Indian-IndochinaApril–MayOctober/Novemberpersistent
Yangon, MyanmarIndo-Australian/Indian-IndochinaMay 25[29]Nov 1[29]
Colombo, Sri LankaIndo-AustralianMay 25[29]Dec 15[29]persistent
Kerala, IndiaIndian monsoonJun 1[29]Dec 1[29]persistent
Jakarta, IndonesiaIndo-Australian/Borneo-AustralianNovemberMarchabrupt
Lahore, PakistanIndian monsoonlate July[29]Sep 1[29]
Dhaka, BangladeshIndo-Australian/Indian-Indochinamid-JuneOctoberabrupt
Cebu, PhilippinesIndo-Australian/Borneo-AustralianOctoberMarchabrupt
Kaohsiung, TaiwanEast Asian monsoonMay 10[29]
Taipei, TaiwanEast Asian monsoonMay 20[29]
Kagoshima, JapanEast Asian monsoonJun 10[29]
Seoul, KoreaEast Asian monsoonJuly 10[29]
Hanoi, VietnamEast Asian monsoonMay 20[29]
Beijing, ChinaEast Asian monsoonJuly 20[29]
Karachi, PakistanIndian monsoonJuly 15[29]August[29]
Mumbai, IndiaIndian monsoonJuly 10[29]Oct 1[29]
Darwin, AustraliaAustralian monsoonOct[28]April[28]

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