GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF INDIA
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in a particular area or rock formations. This article provides you in the form of essay the most important and abundant minerals available in India, and also enumerates the states which lead the country in mineral production.
There are over three thousand different minerals. On the basis of composition, minerals are classified mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals, also reasonable mention would be to include the radioactive minerals which contributes the power and prestige of nations. Ferrous minerals like iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron. A non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.
TYPES OF MINERALS
Non Metallic minerals
Copper is mainly produced in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Copper is mainly used in industrial applications, electrical/electronic equipment and Consumer products such as utensils.
STATES PRODUCING COPPER : Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka
COMPANIES INVOLVED :
- Hindustan Copper Limited.
- Hindalco Industries Limited (Birla Copper)
- Sterlite Industries Limited.
- Jhagadia Copper Limited.
- Nissan Copper Limited India.
- Gujarat copper Alloys Limited.
ORES : chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) chalcocite (Cu2S), covellite (CuS), bornite (Cu5FeS4)
LARGEST PRODUCER : Chile
Long before the discovery of zinc as a metal, zinc ore was already being used to produce the copper-zinc alloy brass as well as zinc salts for medical purposes. Metallic zinc was produced in India ca. 1200 AD, and the process is described as the production of a new metal similar to tin. It involved heating the zinc ore indirectly with charcoal in a covered crucible. Zinc oxide is widely used in the manufacture of very many products such as paints, rubber, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, plastics, inks, soaps, batteries, textiles and electrical equipment.
India has deposits of high grade iron ore. The mineral is found mainly in Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka. India is the world’s third biggest exporter of iron ore as of 2013
STATES PRODUCING IRON : Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra
COMPANIES INVOLVED : National Mineral Development Corporation and Steel Authority of India contribute to 25% of the total production; Tata Steel
ORES : magnetite, hematite, goethite, limonite, or siderite
LARGEST PRODUCER : Australia
Chromite is an oxide of chromium and iron. It is the only commercial source of chromium. Chromium provides additional strength to the alloys and it is resistant to corrosion, so it is mainly used in metallurgical applications. It can withstand sudden temperature changes, so it is used in refractories. It is also used in chemical applications.
STATES PRODUCING CHROMIUM : 93 per cent of the resources are in ODISHA [Sukinda valley in Cuttack and Jajapur]
COMPANIES INVOLVED : Tata steel, Orissa mining corporation
ORE : Chromite
Bauxite, containing 15-25 percent aluminium, is the only ore that is used for commercial extraction of aluminium today. Aluminum is used in industry for national defense, airplane, electric machine, chemical industry, and daily material using.
STATES PRODUCING BAUXITE : Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
COMPANIES INVOLVED : Hindalco Industries, Bharat Aluminium Company(Vedanta)
LARGEST PRODUCER : Australia
Manganese is an important mineral, which is used for making iron and steel and it acts as basic raw material for manufacturing its alloy. Odisha is the leading producer of Manganese. Major mines in Odisha are located in the central part of the iron ore belt of India, particularly in Bonai, Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi and Bolangir.
STATES PRODUCING MANGANESE : Orissa, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh
COMPANIES INVOLVES : MOIL (aka Manganese Ore India Limited )
LARGEST PRODUCER : South Africa
Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete (Portland cement), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feed-stock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
STATES PRODUCING LIMESTONE : Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradedsh
LARGEST PRODUCER : China
Dolomite (CaCO3 .MgCO3 ) theoretically contains CaCO3 54.35% and MgCO3 45.65% or CaO 30.4%, MgO 21.9% and CO2 47.7%. However, in nature, dolomite is not available in this exact proportion. Hence, in commercial parlance, the rock containing 40-45% MgCO3 is usually called dolomite. It is grouped under flux and construction minerals and is important for iron & steel and ferro-alloys industries. Iron and Steel industry is the chief consumer of dolomite accounting for over 90 per cent consumption followed by fertilizer (4%), ferro-alloys and glass (2% each), alloy steel (1%) and others (1%).
STATES PRODUCING DOLOMITE : Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha
The Uranium Corporation of of India, a public sector undertaking is responsible for uranium production in India.The state of Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of uranium in India. Tummalapalle village located in the Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh is considered as a non-trivial source of Uranium in India.
STATES PRODUCING URANIUM : Andhra Pradesh
COUNTRY WITH MAXIMUM URANIUM AVAILABILITY : Australia
The Monazite sands of Kerala are rich in Thorium. India houses considerably large quantities of thorium reserves