Medieval Period and Administration of Indian History Study Materials
MEDIEVAL PERIOD AND ADMINISTRATION
The political life in India during period eighth to twelfth Century is especially dominated by the presence of large number of states. The Bigger states tried to maintain their influence in North as well as in South India. In this struggle, the main parties were the Pratiharas, the Rashtrakutas and the Palas in the north. The most influential kingdom in the South which emerged during this period was that of cholas. The chola power created the political unification of the large parts of the country.
The establishment of the Sultanate started a new phase in the history of Medieval India. It marked to the unification of northern India and parts of the Deccan for almost a century leading to the emergence of a number of kingdoms in different parts of the country. Some of these like Bahmani and Vijaynagara kingdom became very powerful. There were important changes in economic life during this period. New elements of technology were also introduced during this period.
The Sultan dominated the central government as he was the legal head of the state and acted as the chief executive and the highest court of appeal. The Sultan was assisted by a number of ministers like Wazir, Ariz I mamalik, diwan-i-insha and the diwan-i-risalat. After sometime, naib-ul-mulk or malik naib came into existence. During the time of Ala-ud-din khalji, diwan-i-risalat dept was taken out of the hand of the Sadr and renamed di-wan-i-riyasat. Barid-i-mamalik, Vakil-i-dar, amir-i-barbak, amir-i-majlis amit-i-shikar, kotwal etc. were other important officials of the time.
Lodal administration was vague and undefined and based on traditional system. The Provinces were divided into six parts headed by Shiqdars (Police chief) with main functions to maintain law and order and protect people against oppression of zamindars, and had to perform military obligation. The Shiqs (Police regions) were further divided into parganas and had different officials.
- Amil Collected land revenues and other taxes.
- Hazamdars Treasurer.
- Qazi Civil officials.
- Shiqdar Criminal official.
- Kotwal Polic head under Shiqdar.
- Fauzdar Military official in charge of fort along with their adjoining territories.
- Amin Measure land.
- Qanungo Maintained previous records of produce and assessment.
- Patwari Village Record Keeper.
- At Panchayut level, khuts, muqaddam, Chaudhary collected taxes and in lieu of their services, they were excempted from the taxes.
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