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SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS is used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities.Here we have give all the details about scientific instruments and their uses below. It will be helpful for your Competitive Examinations.


Scientific Insruments UsesInventors
AltimeterAn instrument used in aircrafts for measuring altitudesFrench physicist Louis Paul Cailletet 
AmmeterMeasures electric currentFriedrich Drexler
AnemometerUsed to measure the speed, direction and pressure of the wind.Leon Battista Alberti
AudiometerMeasures intensity of soundGeorg von Békésy (1899-1972; winner of the Nobel Prize), a Hungarian-American physicist.
BarographContinuous recording of atmospheric pressureFrenchman Lucien Vidi 
BarometerMeasures atmospheric pressure and conditions.Evangelista Torricelli
BinocularsAn optical instrument used for magnified view of distant objects.J. P. Lemiere
BolometerMeasures infra-red (Heat) radiation.Samuel Pierpont Langley
CallipersMeasures diameters of thin cylinder/wire.Pierre Vernier
CalorimeterMeasures quantity of heatAntoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon 
CarburettorUsed for charging air with petrol vapours in an internal combustion engine.The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. Later, Enrico Bernardi developed another carburetor at the University of Padua in 1882
Cardiogram(ECG)Traces movements of the heart , recorded on a CardiographWillem Einthoven
CathetometerDetermines heights and levelsFrench physicists P. Dulong and A. Petit(1816)
ChronometerDetermines longitude of a vessel at sea.John Harrison
CinematographUsed for projecting pictures on the screen.Auguste Lumière
ColorimeterCompares intensity of coloursJohn T. Stock
CommutatorUsed in generators to reverse the direction of electric current.British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832
CrescographUsed for measuring growth in plants.Jagadish Chandra Bose
CryometerMeasurement of low temperature.
CyclotronUsed for accelerating charged particles in microwave oscillatorErnest Lawrence
DilatometerMeasures change in volume of substancesAbbe and Fizeau in the second half of 19th century
DynamoCoverts mechanical energy into electrical energyMichael Faraday
ElectrometerMeasures very small but potential difference in electric currentsWilliam Snow Harris
ElectrometerUsed for measuring electrical potential difference.
ElectroscopeDetects presence of an electric ChargeWilliam Gilbert
Electron microscopeUsed to obtain a magnifying view of very small objects (20,000 times).Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska
EndoscopeTo examine internal parts of the bodyBozzini
FathometerMeasures depth of the oceanHerbert Grove Dorsey (April 24, 1876 – 1961)
FluxmeterMeasures magnetic fluxMuller Martin
GalvanometerMeasures electric currentJohann Schweigger
GramophoneUsed to reproducing recorded sound.French inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
HydrometerMeasures the relative density of liquidsWilliam Nicholson
HydrophoneMeasure sound under waterReginald Fessenden
HygrometerUsed to measure the moisture content or the humidity of air or any gas.Horace Bénédict de Saussure
HygroscopeShows the changes in atmospheric humidityRobert Hooke
HypsometerDetermines boiling point of liquids.Wayne R Norman
LactometerMeasures the relative density of milk.Mr. Dicas
MachmeterDetermines the speed of an aircraft relative to the speed of soundAngst Walter
ManometerCompares magnetic movement and fieldsOtton von Guerick
ManometerUsed to measure atmospheric pressure
MicrometerCoverts sound waves into electrical vibrationWilliam Gascoigne
MicrophoneConverts sound waves into electrical signals.Emile Berliner
MicroscopeUsed to obtain a magnified view of small objectsZacharias Janssen
NephetometerMeasures the scattering of light by particles suspended in a liquidTheodore William Richards 
OdometerAn instrument attached to the wheel of a vehicle, to measure the distance travelled.Benjamin Franklin
OhmmeterMeasures electrical resistance of objectsOsvold Robert Harold
OndometerMeasures the frequency of electromagnetic waves(radio waves)
OptometerUsed for testing the refractive power of the eye.Dr Jules Badal
OtoscopeUsed for visual examination of the eardrum.E. Seigle
PeriscopeUsed to view objects above sea level (Used in submarines).Hippolyte Marié-Davy
PhonographUsed for reproducing sound.Thomas Edison
PhotometerCompares the luminous intensity of the two sources of lightDmitry Lachinov
PolygraphIt simultaneously records changed in physiological processes such as heartbeat, blood pressure & the respiration (used as lie detector)William Moulton Marston
PyrheliometerUsed for measuring Solar radiation.C. G. ABBOTT
PyrometerMeasures very high temperature.Josiah Wedgwood 
QuadrantMeasures altitudes and angles in navigation and astronomyJohn Hadley
RadarRadio, Detection and Ranging.Heinrich Hertz
Rain GaugeMeasures Rainfall.King Sejong the Great
RefractometerMeasures salinity of solutionsErnst Abbe 
RefractometerMeasures a Refractive Index of a substance.Carl Zeiss 
SextantUsed by navigators to find the latitude of place by measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or another star; also used to measure the height of very distant objectsJohn Campbell
SextantUsed for measuring angular distance between two objects.
SiesmographUsed for recording the intensity and origin of earthquakes shocks.John Milne
SpectroscopeUsed for Spectrum analysis.Robert Wilhelm Bunsen
SpeedometerAn instrument used for measuring speed of the vehicle.Croatian Josip Belušić in 1888 
SpherometerMeasures curvature of spherical objects.Robert-Aglaé Cauchoix
SphygmomanometerMeasures blood pressure.Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in 1881
StethoscopeUsed for hearing and analysing the sound of Heart.René Laennec
TachometerTo determine speed, especially the rotational speed of a shaft(rpm)James W. Allen
Tangent galvanometerMeasure the amount of direct current(DC)André-Marie Ampère
TelemeterRecords physical happenings at a distant place(space)C. Michalke 
TelescopeUsed for magnified view of distant objects.Hans Lippershey
ThermometerMeasures TemperatureGalileo Galilei
ThermostatAutomatically regulates temperatures at a constant point.Warren S. Johnson
TonometerMeasures the pitch of a soundJohn Austin
TransformerAn apparatus used for converting high voltage to low and vice-versa without change in its frequency.Ottó Bláthy
TransponderTo receive a signal and transmit a reply immediately in satellites.Charles M Redman
VenturimeterMeasures the rate of flow of liquidsClemens Herschel
VernierMeasures Small sub-division of scale.Pierre Vernier
ViscometerMeasures Viscosity of liquid.Edward H Zeitfuchs
VoltmeterUsed to measure electric potential difference between two pointsAndrew Kay
WattmeterTo measure electric powerOttó Bláthy
WavemeterTo measure the wavelength of a radiowave(high frequency waves)Paul D Zottu

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