ICAR AIEEA Syllabus 2021 PDF – Download Exam Pattern Here!!!!


ICAR AIEEA Syllabus 2021 PDF – Download Exam Pattern Here!!!!. National Testing Agency (NTA) has Announced the Exam to conduct the Indian Council of Agricultural Research All India Entrance Examination for the UG/PG/Agriculture & Engineering Courses. Examiner who are all Eagerly Waiting for this moment of to fill the Application Form can visit official Website to Apply for this Exam. Now they released the Syllabus for the candidates. Interested candidates can download syllabus from our website. Thank you for visit our Blogs.


Name of the Board

National Testing Agency
Name of the Exam

Indian Council of Agricultural Research All India Entrance Examination

Course Name

UG/PG/Agriculture & Engineering
Exam Date

Announce Soon


Syllabus Available

ICAR AIEEA Exam Pattern:

Test Maximum Marks Number of Questions Duration
ICAR AIEEA (UG) 600 150 (50 in each subject) 02½ hours (150 minutes)
ICAR AIEEA (PG) 480 120 02 hours (120 minutes)
ICAR AICE-JRF/SRF(Ph.D) 480 120 (Part A-20)+(Part B-50)+(Part C-50)* 02 hours (120 minutes)

ICAR AIEEA Syllabus 2021:



Unit-1: Physical World and Measurement
Physics scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit-2: Kinematics
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion: velocity-time graph, position- time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space. Motion of objects in three dimensional space.

Unit-3: Laws of Motion
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit-4: Work, Energy and Power
Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit-5: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects. Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit-6: Gravitation
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit-7: Properties of Bulk Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat. Heat transfer- conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.

Unit-8: Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

Unit-9: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

Unit-10: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring–restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.- kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum– derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

Unit-11: Electrostatics
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Unit-12: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V – I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit-13: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit-14: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

Unit-15: Electromagnetic waves
Displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit-16: Optics
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin  lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit-17: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.

Unit-18: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.

Unit-19: Electronic Devices
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I -V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I – V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Unit-20: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.


Unit-1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Unit-2: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.

Unit-3: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.

Unit-4: Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit-5: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.

Unit-6: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR (Valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit-7: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Unit-8: Thermodynamics
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of DU and DH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization, and solution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.

Unit-9: Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect.

Unit-10: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.

Unit-11: Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit-12: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

Unit-13: Preparation and properties of some important compounds
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca

Unit-14: Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements: Group 13 elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

Unit-15: Group 14 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element, Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites.

Unit-16: Organic Chemistry
Some Basic Principles and Techniques General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds, Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions

Unit-17: Hydrocarbons
Classification of hydrocarbons Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene: resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel-Craft’s alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Unit-18: Electrochemistry

Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.

Unit-19: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)

Unit-20: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions.

Unit-21: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit-22: p-Block Elements
Group 15 elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids

Unit-23: Group 16 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Unit-24: Group 17 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Unit-25: Group 18 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit-26: d and f Block Elements
General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states.

Unit-27: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).

Unit-28: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit-29: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit-30: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit-31: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit-32: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates– Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.

Proteins – Elementary idea of á-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA .

Unit-33: Polymers
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber.

Unit-34: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Unit-35: Chemistry in Everyday life

  • Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
  • Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
  • Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action. (Refer Official Notification)

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(Sub-Subjects: 1.1: Plant Biochemistry/ Bio. Chem. 1.2: Plant Biotechnology & Molecular Biology/Biotechnology, 1.3: Plant /Crop Physiology)


Importance of agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, and mango. Major soils of India; role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. General structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics. Elementary knowledge of growth, development, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration; Elements of economic botany. General structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Organic farming; bio-fertilizers; bio-pesticides. Recombinant DNA technology; transgenic crops. Important rural development programmes in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India. Elements of statistics.


Importance of biochemistry in agriculture. Acid-base concept and buffers; pH. Classification, structure and metabolic functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Structure and function of nucleic acids. Enzymes: structure, nomenclature, mechanism of action; vitamins and minerals as coenzymes and cofactors. Metabolic pathways: glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, triglyceride biosynthesis. Electron transport chain; ATP formation. Photosynthesis: C-3, C-4 and CAM pathways. Nitrate assimilation; biological nitrogen fixation. Colorimetric and chromatographic techniques


Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; differences between fungi, bacteria, mycoplasms and viruses. Physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure. DNA replication, transcription and translation; genetic code; operon concept. Genetic engineering; restriction enzymes; vectors; gene cloning; gene transfer. Plant cell and tissue culture; micro-propagation; somaclonal variation. Transformation; recombination; Heterosis. General application of biotechnology. Molecular and immunological techniques. Concept of bioinformatics, genomics and proteomics.


Plant Physiology/ Crop Physiology: Plant physiology– importance in agriculture. Seed germination, viability and vigour. Photosynthesis- significance of C-3, C-4 and CAM pathway; photorespiration and its implications. Translocation of assimilates; dry matter partitioning; Harvest index of crops. Growth and development; growth analysis; crop-water relationship. Plant nutrients and their functions. Phytohormones and their physiological role. Photo-periodism, vernalisation; pollination/ fertilization in flowering plants. Post-harvest physiology and its significance.


(Sub-Subjects: 2.1: Plant Breeding & Genetics, 2.2: Plant Pathology, 2.3: Agricultural Microbiology/Microbiology, 2.4: Seed Science & Technology, 2.5: Plant Genetic Resources)


Importance of Agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, potato and mango. Major soils of India, role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms.


Structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics; elementary knowledge of photosynthesis; respiration, and transpiration; structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management.


Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, differences between fungi, bacteria, mycoplasmas and viruses; physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure; genes/operon concept; protein biosynthesis; transformation, recombination, Heterosis; Elements of economic botany; integrated diseases management; sterilisation, disinfection and pasteurization; Koch’s postulates; etiological agents of rusts, smuts, powdery/downy mildews, wilts, yellows, mosaic, necrosis, enations, blights and witches- broom; pH, buffer, vitamins, role of plant hormones in seed germination and dormancy; pollination/ fertilization in flowering plants; methods of seed testing; breeders, foundation and certified seeds; seed production in self and cross pollinated crops, nitrate assimilation; biological nitrogen fixation and other uses of microorganisms in agriculture.


Food and industry; composting and biogas production. Important rural development programmes in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India.


(Sub-Subjects: 3.1: Agricultural / Agro. Meteorology, 3.2 : Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry/ Soil Conservation and Water Management/ SWC/ Irrigation and Water Management, 3.3: Agricultural Physics, 3.4: Agricultural Chemicals, 3.5: Environmental Science.)


Importance of Agriculture in national perspective; basic principles of crop production, diversification, diversification of Agriculture, principle of nutrient and water management, package of practices for rice, wheat sorghum, maize, chickpea, pigeon pea, potato, sugarcane, groundnut, major vegetable crops. Role of essential plant nutrients, their deficiency symptoms and management options. Structure and function of plant cells, cell division, Basic concept of plant physiology relating to crop production- Biochemical compounds viz, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, fats, liquid vitamins and their function, developmental programmes relating to rural upliftment and livelihood security; organisational set up of agricultural education research and extension and future strategies for up gradation.


Volumetric and gravimetric analysis including complexmetric methods, periodic classification of element, Basic principle of instrumental analysis including spectro-photometry (Absorption and emission spectrography), Atomic structure –elementary concept of radioactivity, element and compound common ion effect, solubility product— hydrolysis of salts, buffer solution indicates equivalent weights and standard solution. Elementary concepts of organic compounds- nomenclature and classifications including hydrocarbons, alcohol, aldehydes, acids and esters, carbohydrates, fats and liquids, amino acids, nucleic acids. Pesticides, their classification and uses; biopesticides and botanical pesticides.


Soil as a medium for plant growth, composition of earth’s crust, weathering of rocks and minerals, components of soil- their importance, soil profile, soil partials- physical mineralogical and chemical nature. Mechanical analysis, Stokes law, assumptions, limitations and applications. Soil, physical properties- density, porosity, texture, soil structure and their brief descriptions. Rheological properties in soils, calculations of porosity and bulk density. Soil air-Aeration, causes of poor aeration, factors affecting aeration, importance for plant growth. Soil temperature – sources and losses of soil heat. Factors affecting soil temperature, its importance in plant growth. Soil water- structure of water, soil-water-energy relationship, classifications, surface tension and movement in soil. Soil colloids- properties, structure of silicate clay minerals, sources of negative charges, properties, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and vermiculite clay minerals, milli-equivalent concept , cation exchange capacity, anion exchange capacity, buffering of soils. Problem soils- acid, saline, sodic and acid sulphate soils – their characteristics, formation, problems and management. Irrigation, water quality and its evaluation. Waterlogged soils- basic features, distinction with upland soils.


Essential plant nutrients- criteria of essentiality, functions for plant growth, mechanisms for movement and uptake of ions in soils and plants, Forms of nutrients in soils, deficiency symptoms on plants, luxury consumption, nutrient interactions and chelated micronutrients. Soil fertility, evaluation and management for plant growth, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations. Soil classifications- diagnostic surface and sub- surface horizons, soil survey- types, objectives, uses, land capability classifications. Remote sensing and its application in agriculture, SIS, GIS and GPS- basic features and uses in agriculture, Elementary concepts of radio isotopes and uses in agriculture. Soil micro-organisms, Classifications and their roles. Organic matter- decomposition, C:N ratios, mineralization and immobilization processes, humus, role of organic matter in soil quality. Soil erosion, types and control measures. Fertilizers and manures- classifications, NPK fertilizers, their reactions in soils, green manuring, recycling of organic wastes, composting. Soil and water pollution- sources, brief idea about different pollutants in soils and their managements. (Refer Official Notification)

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Unit 1: General Genetics and Plant Breeding
Mendelian inheritance. Cell structure and division, Linkage, its detection and estimation. Epistasis. Gene concept, allelism and fine structure of gene. Extra chromosomal inheritance. DNA – structure, function, replication and repair. Genetic code. Gene-enzyme relationship. Replication, Transcription and Translation. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome organization. Spontaneous and induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms. Crop domestication, evolution of crops and centres of diversity. Emergence of scientific plant breeding. Objectives and accomplishments in plant breeding and the role of National and International institutes. Gametogenesis and fertilization. Modes of sexual and asexual reproduction and its relation to plant breeding methodology. Apomixes, incompatibility and male sterility systems and their use in plant breeding. Epigenetics.

Unit 2: Economics Botany and Plant Breeding Methods
Origin, distribution, classification, description and botany of cereals (wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, small millets); pulses (pigeonpea, chickpea, black gram, green gram, cowpea, soybean, pea, lentil, horse gram, lab-lab, rice bean, lathyrus, lima bean; oilseeds (groundnut, sesamum, castor, rapeseed mustard, sunflower, safflower, niger, linseed); fibre and sugar crops, fodder and green manures; Breeding methods for self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and asexually propagated crops. Combination, recombination and transgressive breeding. Single seed descent. Populations, their improvement methods and maintenance, Hybrid breeding and genetic basis of heterosis. Ideotype breeding. Mutation breeding, Concept of tree breeding. Speed breeding methods, Pre-breeding, Reverse Breeding.

Unit 3: Genome Organization and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants
Chromosome number, structure, function and replication. Sex determination & sex linkage. Recombination and crossing over. Molecular and cytological mechanism of crossing over. Karyotype analysis. Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Cell cycle and its regulation. Banding techniques. In situ hybridization. GISH and FISH Special types of chromosomes. Chromosomal interchanges, inversions, duplications and deletions. Polyploids, haploids, aneuploids, their utility and their meiotic behaviour. Wide hybridization and chromosomal manipulations for alien gene transfer. Pre-and post- fertilization barriers in wide hybridization. Genome organization and Cytogenetics of important crop species- wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, Brassica, groundnut, cotton, Vigna, potato and sugarcane. Cytogenetic techniques for gene location and gene transfer, Construction and use of molecular marker based chromosome maps.

Unit 4: Quantitative and Biometrical Genetics
Quantitative characters. Multiple factors inheritance. Genetic control of polygenic characters. Genetic advance and types of selection their effects on population mean and variance. Metric characters under natural selection. Repeatability and asymmetry of response. Breeding value. Dominance and interaction deviations. Hardy Weinberg law and changes in gene frequency due to migration, mutation and selection. Linkage disequilibrium. Genetic load. Polymorphism. Breeding value, heritability. Response to selection, correlated response. Estimates of variance components and covariance among relatives. Mating designs with random and inbred parents. Estimation of gene effects and combining ability. Effects of linkage and epistasis on estimation of genetic parameters. Maternal effects. Genotype-environment interactions, stability of performance and stability analysis. Heterosis and its basis (Genetic, biochemical and physiological). Mating system and mating design- diallel, line X tester, NC-I NC-II and NC-III designs, approaches to estimate and exploit components of self and cross pollinated crops. . GGE biplot analysis, Principal component analysis, AMMI and GGI analysis.

Unit 5: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnological Tools in Plant Breeding
Somatic hybridization, micropropagation, somaclonal variation, in vitro mutagenesis. Anther culture. Cryopreservation. Genetic and molecular markers, generation of molecular markers and their application in genetic analyses and breeding. Molecular markers in genetic diversity analysis and breeding for complex characters. Gene tagging, QTL mapping, MAS, MARS and MABB. Vectors. DNA libraries, DNA fingerprinting, DNA sequencing. Nucleic acid hybridization and immunochemical detection. Chromosome walking, Recombinant DNA technology, Gene cloning strategies. Gene transfer methods. Artificial synthesis of gene. Genetic transformation, transgenics and cisgenics. Antisense RNA, RNAi and micro RNA techniques in crop improvement. Genome editing using CRISPER/cas, Genomic selection, RNA Seq analysis

Unit 6: Plant Breeding for Stress Resistance and Nutritional Quality
Genetic and molecular basis and breeding for resistance to diseases and insect-pests. Breeding for vertical and horizontal resistance to diseases. Genetic and physiological basis of abiotic stress tolerance. Breeding for resistance to heat, frost, flood, drought and soil stresses. Important quality parameters in various crops, their genetic basis and breeding for these traits. Role of molecular markers in stress resistance breeding using biotechnological tools (MAS, MARS and MABB and transgenics). Biofortification.

Unit 7: Plant Genetic Resources and their Regulatory System; Varietal Release and Seed Production
Plant exploration, germplasm introduction, exchange, conservation, evaluation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Types of genetic resources. Centres of diversity of cultivated plants. Genetic erosion and genetic vulnerability. Convention on Biological Diversity and International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Intellectual Property Rights and its different forms for protection of plant genetic resources. Biodiversity Act. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act and its features. System of variety release and notification. Types of seeds and seed chain. Maintenance breeding- nucleus and breeder seed production. Seed production and certification.

Unit 8: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency, probability theory and its applications in genetics. Probability distribution and tests of significance. Correlation, linear, partial and multiple regression. Genetic divergence. Multivariate analysis. Designs of experiments – basic principles, completely randomized design, randomized block design and split plot design. Complete and incomplete block designs. Augmented design, Grid and honeycomb design. Hill plots, unreplicated evaluation. Data collection and interpretation.


Unit 1 : Seed Biology
Floral biology, mode of reproduction, sporogenesis, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, fruit and seed development and physiological and harvestable maturity. Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony and somatic embryoids and synthetic seeds. Seed structure of monocot and dicot. Seed maturation and maturation drying in orthodox and recalcitrant seed. Seed chemical composition. Seed dormancy – types, causes, methods to overcome dormancy. Seed germination – phases, types and requirements. Physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seed. Role of hormones in dormancy and germination.

Unit 2 : Seed Production
Genetic purity – concept and factors responsible for deterioration of varieties. Maintenance breeding. Generation system of seed multiplication. Seed production agencies – public and private. Compact area approach / seed village concept in seed production. Seed Replacement Rate, Seed Multiplication Ratio, Seed Renewal Period, Varietal Replacement Rate. Seed production planning. Factors affecting pollination and seed set viz., temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect pollinators and supplementary pollination. Male sterility, self-incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. Techniques of hybrid seed production – emasculation and pollination, detasseling, male sterility, sex expression, self-incompatibility and chemical hybridizing agents. Principles and methods of seed production of varieties and hybrids of cereals – wheat, paddy, sorghum, pearl millet and maize; pulses – chickpea, pigeon pea, green gram, black gram, soybean and cowpea; oilseeds – groundnut, brassica, sesame, sunflower and castor; fibre crops – cotton and jute; vegetable crops – tomato, brinjal, okra, chilli, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, knol khol, turnip, carrot and cucurbitaceous crops; important forage legumes – lucerne, desmanthus and grasses – cumbu napier and fodder sorghum ; plantation crops – coffee, tea, rubber, cocoa, cardamom, coconut and pepper. Disease free clonal propagation of crops – potato, sugarcane, tapioca, fruit crops – mango, citrus. apple, pear, plum. Clonal propagation of annual and perennial flowers like rose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum, marigold, dahlia, phlox and petunia. Clonal standards and degenerations. Micro propagation.

Unit 3 : Seed Processing
Principles of seed processing. Processing sequence for different crops. Layout of seed processing unit. Seed drying – principles and methods. Pre-cleaning, grading, upgrading, seed treatment and packaging. Working principles of seed processing machines viz., cleaner cum grader, specific gravity separator, indented cylinder separator and seed treater. Seed quality maintenance during processing. Seed enhancement techniques – seed coating, pelleting and priming.

Unit 4: Seed Quality Control
Seed legislation – the Seeds Act 1966, Seed Rules 1968, Seed Control Order, 1983 and Seed Bill 2004. Seed certification – history, concept, organization, phases and Indian minimum seed certification standards. Field inspection principles and methods. Inspection at harvesting, threshing and processing. Pre-and post-processing quality testing of seed. Seed testing concepts and objectives, its role in seed quality control. Seed sampling, seed moisture testing, purity analysis, germination testing, tolerance limit and seed testing equipments. Quick viability test and seed standards. Seed vigour, its significance and testing methods. Testing for genuineness of varieties – principles and methods based on seed, seedling and plant characters, biochemical techniques – electrophoresis of proteins and isoenzymes and DNA fingerprinting. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), its role in development of seed testing procedures, rules and seed quality assurance for international seed trade. OECD seed certification guideline – agricultural and vegetable crops.

Unit 5 : Seed Storage
Seed storage – principle – purpose and types – short, medium and long term storage. Factors affecting seed storage and role of moisture, temperature and relative humidity. Viability nomographs. Longevity of orthodox and recalcitrant seeds. Seed deterioration causes and methods of control. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in seed ageing. Controlled storage. Germplasm storage. Cryo preservation. Seed storage containers, types – safe moisture content. Storage structures. Methods of stacking and their impact on seed quality. Seed storage godown maintenance and sanitation. Management of carry over seed.

Unit 6 : Seed Health
Significance of seed health. Procedures for seed health test and rules. Externally and internally seed – borne pathogens, mode of infection, development and spread, methods of detection. Important seed-borne diseases of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, fibre crops, vegetables and their control measures. Quarantine and International procedures of phytosanitary certificates. Important storage pests, their identification, monitoring and detection. Use of pesticides, botanicals, mycotoxins for seed treatments. Carry over infestation, principles of fumigation and safe use of fumigants.

Unit 7 : Seed Industry Development and Marketing
National and International seed industry development. Role of OECD and WTO in International seed trade. International Seed Federation (ISF). Market survey, demand forecasting, pricing policies, marketing channels, planning and sales promotion. Economics of seed production. Role of Government, semi Government, cooperative and private sectors in seed trade. Responsibilities of seed companies and dealers in Seed Act. Seed import and export.

Unit 8 : Protection of Plant Varieties
Plant Variety Protection (PVP) and its significance. International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) and its role in development of Plant Breeders Rights and Seed Industry Development. UPOV 1978 and 1991 Acts. Plant Breeders Rights and exceptions to it. Breeders exemption and farmers privilege. Plant patent v/s Plant breeders rights. Impact of PVP on seed supply system. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Right Act, 2001, its essential features. Criteria for protection of different types of plant varieties. DUS testing principles and application. Breeders, Researchers and farmers rights. Compulsory licensing. Indian Biological Diversity Act, its essential features. Access to Biological resources, benefit sharing.


Unit 1: Biodiversity and Plant Genetic Resources
Biodiversity- an overview, genetic, species and ecosystem diversity; determinants of biodiversity ,species richness and endemism, agriculture as friend and foe of biodiversity, harmonizing biodiversity, conservation and agricultural development, origin and history of agriculture; dynamics of domestication; centers of crop plant origin and diversity; geographical distribution of crops of Indian origin, plant genetic resources management (importance and usefulness of germplasm, germplasm conservation, threat of genetic vulnerability, global concerns) in situ conservation of genetic resources, collecting genetic resources and managing genetic resources, biotechnology and germplasm conservation.

Unit 2: Exploration and Germplasm Collecting
History and importance of germplasm exploration; distribution and extent of prevalent genetic diversity; phyto-geographical regions/ecological zones and associated diversity; mapping eco- geographic distribution of diversity, threatened habitats, use of flora. Concept of population and  gene pool, variations in population and their classification, gene frequencies in populations, rare and common alleles, gene pool sampling in self- and cross-pollinated and vegetatively propagated species, non-selective, random and selective sampling strategies. Strategies and logistics of plant exploration and collection, coarse and fine grid surveys, practical problems in plant exploration, use of in vitro methods in germplasm collection. Ethnobotanical aspects of PGR, crop botany, farming systems, collecting wild relatives of crop plants. Post-exploration handling of germplasm collections, collection and preservation of specimens, importance and use of herbaria and preparation of herbarium specimens. Present status and future strategies in collecting of major crops of Indian origin such as rice, maize, sorghum, sesame, brassica, okra, eggplant, cotton, mango, etc.

Unit 3: Germplasm Exchange and Plant Quarantine
History, principles, objectives and importance of plant introduction; Prerequisites, conventions, national and international legislations and policies on germplasm collection and exchange. Plant quarantine- introduction, history, principles, objectives and relevance; Regulations and plant quarantine set up in India; Pest risk analysis, pest and pathogen information database; Quarantine in relation to integrated pest management; Economic significance of seed-borne pests (insects, mites, non-insect pests, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, viruses, phytoplasma etc.). Detection and identification of pests including use of recent techniques like ELISA, PCR etc., Symptoms of pest damage, salvaging techniques for infested/infected germplasm, post-entry quarantine operation, seed treatment and other prophylactic treatments and facilities. Domestic quarantine; seed certification; International linkages in plant quarantine; weaknesses and future thrust. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or genetically engineered plants (GEPs), Concepts of biosafety, risk analysis and consequences of spread of GE crops on the environment; Treaties and multilateral agreements governing trans-boundary movement of GEPs or GMOs, Indian regulatory system for biosafety.

Unit 4: Principles and Methods of Germplasm Conservation
In situ and ex situ conservation: concept of biosphere reserves, gene sanctuaries, on-farm conservation, field genebanks, botanical gardens, herbal gardens, in vitro repositories cryo-banks and DNA banks, Short-, medium- and long-term conservation, concept of base, active and working collections, seed structure and function, physiological and genetic changes during storage, theories of aging, viability equations, predicting storage life of seeds, dormancy and germination. Genebank management: acquisition, accessioning and processing of germplasm samples for storage, genebank standards for various crops, ISTA, AOSA, IPGRI guidelines, monitoring and regeneration of plant germplasm. Design of storage facilities, maintenance and operation of storage modules. Information management in genebanks, strategies for revival and rescue of rare genetic material.

Unit 5: Principles and Practices of Germplasm Regeneration and Evaluation
Principles and practices of germplasm regeneration and maintenance, breeding systems and mode of reproduction; maintaining sufficiently large populations for effective conservation of farmer landraces. Germplasm characterization/evaluation procedures; evaluation of germplasm for specific traits; key issues for the improvement of characterization, evaluation and use of plant genetic resources; concept of core collection. Measuring diversity using agro-morphological data; gene markers and their use in PGR management. Evaluation and maintenance of wild relatives of crop plants; genetic enhancement/pre-breeding and use of alien/unadapted genetic resources in crop improvement.

Unit 6: Biotechnology in Plant Genetic Resource Management
History and importance of Tissue culture, Tissue culture media, Sterilization techniques, In vitro clonal multiplication, Somatic embryogenesis, Meristem culture and virus elimination, In vitro conservation –Introduction and principle, Strategies for in vitro short- and medium-term conservation, In vitro collection, in vitro exchange of germplasm. Plant Cryopreservation-Introduction, Principle of cryotolerance, Techniques of cryopreservation: slow cooling, desiccation, pre-growth, encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, droplet freezing, Cryoprotectants, Cryopreservation of seeds and pollen, Cryopreservation of in vitro cultures, Application of in vitro cryopreservation techniques, Management of in vitro and cryobanks, Genetic stability of in vitro conserved and cryopreserved germplasm, Importance of database for in vitro and cryopreserved germplasm.

Unit 7: Economic Botany
Origin, evolution, botany, cultivation, genetic resource activities and utilization of genetic
diversity of important crops of cereals, millets, legumes, forage and fodder crops, medicinal and aromatic plants, beverages, oil yielding plants, spices and condiments, wood and timber yielding taxa, fumigatory and masticatory plants, vegetable crops, sugar, starch and cellulose yielding plants, rubber yielding plants, insecticidal and herbicidal plants, fruits and nuts, flowering agents, gums and resins, fiber yielding plants, under-utilized and under-exploited plants, new crops, pseudo-cereals, important taxa in agro-forestry, horticulture and floriculture, processing and use of crop residues.

Unit 8: Information Management in Plant Genetic Resources
Statistical techniques in management of germplasm, developing core collection, estimation of sample size during plant explorations, impact of sampling on population structure, Sequential sampling for viability estimation, introduction of binomial, normal and negative cumulative normal, use of Probit scales, viability equations and nomograms, estimation of sample size for storage and viability testing, Germplasm documentation; basics of computer and operating systems, database management system, use of statistical softwares, pictorial and graphical representation of data; Introduction to communication network.

Unit 9: Plant Taxonomy
Classical and modern species concepts, differentiation and evolution of species and biosystematics -variation within species, population genetics, phenotypic plasticity, environmental effects on populations, Modern evidences for Morphology and Anatomy, Embryology and Palynology; Biogeography and Cytotaxonomy; Modern evidences for Comparative studies on phytochemistry, Chemotaxonomy; Molecular taxonomy methods; Numerical methods in taxonomy; Biosystematic approaches in plant taxonomy- some Indian case studies, Taxonomy of cultivated plants: Taxonomy of cultivated plants with particular emphasis on Indian groups: Hybrids, domesticated species, wild-cultivated continuum; Tools of taxonomy for identification of plant species and variation patterns therein; Field and herbarium methods; Floristic and monographic works; Systematic and evolutionary studies, Taxonomic databases: Taxonomic databases and documentation methods.

Unit 10: Plant Biosecurity
History and Concept of biosecurity, Components of biosecurity, Quarantine, Invasive Alien Species, Biowarfare, Emerging/ resurgence of pests and diseases, National Regulatory Mechanism and International Agreements/Conventions viz. Agreement on Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS), Measures/ World Trade Organization (WTO), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, pest risk analysis, risk assessment models, pest information system, early warning and forecasting system, use of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for plant biosecurity, pest/ disease and epidemic management, strategies for combating risks and costs associated with agro-terrorism event, mitigation planning, integrated approach for biosecurity, Biosafety, policies and regulatory mechanism, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and its implications, Issues related to release of genetically modified crops.

Unit 11: Fundamentals of Molecular Biology for PGR Management
Structure and function of DNA, genome organization, Tools for genetic manipulation, Introduction to molecular markers, classification and comparison of markers, basis for DNA polymorphism and principles of generating molecular markers, – RFLP, PCR, sequencing; Principles, merits and demerits of RAPD, ISSR, SSR, SCAR, SCOT, SRAP, AFLP, SNPs markers; data handling and statistical analysis, Overview of molecular marker applications, Introduction to transgenics, monitoring strategies and methods for detecting transgenics. (Refer Official Notification)

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