Failure of Revolution in India Study Material


Failure of Revolution in India Study Material

Download Terrorist And Revolutionary Movements

The Revolutionaries organised rebellions against the British government and became stronger and more determined once they started getting support from foreign nations hostile to the British. Despite gaining popularity and a dedicated following, both the terrorist and the revolutionary movements could not achieve their objectives of freeing India from the British. This was because (i) there was no central, all-India level organization which could control the activities in an organised manner; (ii) these movements appealed to the youngsters who had faced the hostilities of the British rule, but the mass following in the rural belt was unavailable; (iii) Germany, which promised arms and funds to be used against Britain could not deliver; (iv) the US entry and its subsequent dominance in the world war demoralised Germany and the allies to be of help to the Indian cause; (v) Montagu’s package of self-governance for the Indians took the fizz out of the revolutionary activists; (vi) the congress party and other upper middle class politicians and leaders always disapproved of the ways of these movements; and (vi) Gandhi’s entry into the political scene of India marked a revolution in the form of satyagraha, which contributed to the decline of the revolutionary and terrorist activities.

The Moderate Approach
The early nationalists that it their demands were presented to the government thorough constitutional methods, their grievances would be redressed. so, instead of resorting to aggressive methods, they passed resolutions or sent petitions of appeals. Delegations were sometimes sent to England to put forward their demands to the British Parliament. They worked within the framework of law.

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Revolutionary Organisations





Mitra Mela V.D.Savarkar 1899 Maharatra
Abhinav Bharat G.D.Savarkar 1904 Bengal
Bharat Mata Society J.M.Chatterjee 1904 Bengal
Anushillan Samiti Pulin Bihari Das 1906 Dhaka
Anushillan Samiti Pramatha Nath Mishra, Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Jatindra Nath Banerjee 1902 Kolkata
Ghadar Party (Hindu Association of America) Lala Hardyal, Sohan Singh Bhakha 1913 San Francisco
Hinduisan Republic Association Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Yogesh Chandra Chatterjee 1924
Indian Republican Army Surya Sen Bengal
Hinduistan Republic Association Chandra Shekar, Bhagat Singh 1928 Delhi
Indian Independence League Ras Bihari Bose 1942 Japan
Bharat Mata Association Nilkant Brahmachari, Vanchi Ayyer Chennai
Atomonnati Smiti Bipin Bihari Gangly Bengal

Mass Rejection of Prayer-Petition
After Curzon’s proposal for the partition, Bengal became known {December 1903}. Congress carried out protests and petitions were carried out for more than 1 ½ years, with absolutely no effect on the British. On 19 July 1905, Curzon went ahead with his partition plan. Within days, spontaneous protests were organised in a large number of mofussil areas, where the pledge for the boycott of British goods was taken, In Kolkata, the students organised meetings were the Swadeshi call was taken up. By August, even the Congress leaders such as Surendranath Banerjee were forced to take up the boycott call. On 7 August 1905, in a public meeting at the Kolkata Town Hall, the boycott resolution was passed. The response in Bengal was overwhelming. By September 1905, the sale of British clothes in some districts fell to 6 per cent from the original levels of 20 per cent. Public burning of foreign clothes and the setting up of village samillis took place spontaneously. One of these samitis, the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti of Barisal, headed by Aswini Kumar Dutt, attained remarkable popularity for its social and humanitarian work among the Muslim peasantry.

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