# Equation of States – Study Material

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#### Equation of States – Study Material

In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a relation between state variables. More specifically, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation, describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. It is a constitutive equation which provides a mathematical relationship between two or more state functions associated with the matter, such as its temperature, pressure, volume or internal energy. Equations of state are useful in describing the properties of fluids, mixtures of fluids, solids, and even the interior of stars.

Equation of States – Study Material

#### Synopsis

• Boyle’s law
• Charles’s Law
• Dalton’s law of partial pressures
• Van der Waals equation of state
• Redlich Kwong equation of state
• Peng-Robinson equation of state
• Applications of thermodynamics

Boyle’s law:

• Boyle’s law was perhaps the first expression of an equation of state. In mathematical form, this can be stated as, pV = constant It is also referred as Mariotte’s law.

Dalton’s law of partial pressures:

• It states that the pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone

Applications of second law of thermodynamics:

• Second Law of T.D. says that heat flows from body at high temperature to the body at low temperature. If you want to transfer heat from low temperature to high temperature body, external work has to be done.
• The second Law of thermodynamics is considered to be the most fundamental law of science. It explains not only the working of engines, refrigerators and other equipments used in our daily life, but also highly advanced theories like big bang, expansion of universe, heat death etc.