Data Interpretation PDF


Data Interpretation PDF

Data Interpretation:

Data Interpretation questions are based on the information given in the tables and graphs.


A table is one of the easiest way for summarising data.

A statistical table is the logical listing of related quantitative data in vertical columns and horizontal rows of numbers with sufficient explanatory and qualifying words, phrases and statements in the form of titles, heading and notes to make clear the meaning of data.

Average = (Sum of all items) / (Total number of items)

λ= The bars are drawn proportional in length to the total and then divided in the ratios of their components.

% change (increase or decrease) = (Final value – Initial value)/(Initial value)×100

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Graphs are a convenient way to represent information. The graphs should be labelled properly to show what part of the graphs shows what a value.

  1. Bar Graph – Bar diagram consists of a number of equidistant rectangles. One for each category of the datain which the magnitudes are represented by the length or height of rectangle, whereas width of rectangles are immaterial. Thus, a bar is just one dimensional as only the length of the bar is to be considered and not the width. All the bars drawn in a diagram are generally of uniform width which depends on the number of bars to be constructed and the availability of the space.

Types of Bar Graphs are:

(i) Simple Bar Graph: It is used to represent only one dependent variable.

(ii) Sub-divided Bar Graphs: These are used to represent the break down of a total into its component bars. A bar is divided into different segments, each segment represents a given component. Different shades, colours, designs etc. are used to distinguish the various components. An index is given to represent the various components. Tor compare, the order of various components in the different bars is same.

(iii) Multiple Bar Graph (MBG): When a combination of inter-related variables are to be represented graphically, multiple bar diagrams are used. These arc extended form of simple bar diagrams. In M.B.G. many aspects of the data are presented simultaneously with separated bars or various shades of colours. An index is given to explain the shades or colours used.

  1. Line Graph (LG): LG are used to show how a quantity changes, very often the quantity is measured as time changes. If the line goes up, the quantity is increasing and the line goes down, the quantity is decreasing. If the line is horizontal, the quantity is not changing.
  2. Pie Graph (PG): Pie graph is a pictorial representation of numerical data by non- intersecting adjacent sectors of a circle sector’s area of each sector is proportional to the magnitude of the data represented by the sector.1 % of total value = 360/100 = 3.6°

    The % of components parts can be converted to degrees by multiplying 3.6°.

    Degree of any component part  =(component value)/(total value) × 360

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