Communist Movement In India Study Material
Manabendra Nath Roy, earlier known as Narcndra Nath Bhattachuryu. is credited to be the founder of the communist movement in India. He attended the Second Congress of Communist International in Russia and in Tashkent along with Evelina Trench Roy, Abani Mukhcrji, Rosa Fitingof, Mohammad Ali (Ahmed Hasan), Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui; he founded the emigre Communist Party of India on 17 October 1920. He had earlier played an important role in the forminging of the Communist Party of Mexico in 1919. Roy kept in contact with the Anushilan and Yuguntar groups in Bengal and tried to strengthen the movement in India. Small communist groups were formed in Bengal (Jed by Muzaffar Ahmed), Mumbai (led by S. A. Dange), Chennai (led by Singaravelu Chettiar), United Provinces (led by Shaukat Usmani) and Punjab (led by Ghulam Hussain). The activities of the new breed of revolutionaries caused panic among the British administrators and on 17 March 1924, M. N. Roy, S. A. Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain and R. C. Sharma were charged for starling a violent revolution to deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of the British in India. This was termed as the Kanpur Bolshevik Conspir case. This action of the government, however, blessing in disguise for the communists as the mas,1 became aware ot the plans, doctrines and the aims of Communists International in India.
Kanpur Communist Conferencewas held 25 December 1925, where more than 500 participated and adopted the name ‘Communist Party of India’ (CPI). The Labour and Swaraj Party of the indian National Congress were formed in Bengal on 1 November 1925. The name of the party was changed to Workers and Peasants Party of Bengal (WPP) on 6 February 1925 at a conference in Krishnanagar. After the conference, the underground CPI members joined the provincial Wpps to carry out their; Activities. WPP became the face of the communist movement, which was declared illegal. M. N. Roy in this period opposed nationalism in India and argued that India ivas not ready for a socialist revolution as it was populated by an industrial working class. On the other hand, the Berlin group of the Indian revolutionaries represented by Virendranath Chattopadhyay, Maulana Barkatullah and Bhupendranath Datta had a positive aspect of nationalism and considered India as an ugrarian country.
SIXTH CONGRESS OF THE COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL
The sixth congress of the Communist International met in 1928. The colonial thesis of the 6th Comintern Congress demanded the Indian communists to protest against the national-reformist leaders thus opposing Swarajists, Gandhists and their expression of passive resistance. The Tenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International. 3-19 July 1929 directed Indian Communists to sever tics with WPP to which they obliged.
MERRUT CONSPIRACY CASE
On 20 March 1929, Meerut Conspiracy case involved the arrests of WPP, CPI und other labour leaders in several parts of India. The trial proceedings of Communist leadership lasted for years. The main centres of activity of CPI were Mumbai, Kolkata, Punjab and Chennai.
CONGRESS SOCIALIST PARTY
The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) formed by the Indian left-wing elements in 1934 was branded as ‘Social Fascist’ by the CPI. After 1936, both these parties worked together and the period between 1936 and 1937 saw the co-operation of these parties attaining zenith. During the third CSP Congress in Faizpur, several communists got included into the CSP National Executive Committee.
Nagpur Session of the INC
The Nagpur session held m December 1920, brought change, in the Constitution ot the Congress. These include that the Congress was now supposed to the led by a 15 memberworking committee Membership was thrown open to all and women of ihe age of 21 years or more on the payment of 4 annas as annual subscription (Age limit reduced to 18 years in 1921).
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, G, S. Khaparde, Bipin Chandra Pal Annie Besonl and so on left the Congress as they did not believe in Gandhi’s non cooperation strategy.