Major classification of Indian soils
According to ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) soils are divided into 8 categories. they are:
- Alluvial soil [43%]
- Red soil [18.5%]
- Black / regur soil [15%]
- Arid / desert soil
- Laterite soil
- Peaty Soil
- Forest soil
- mountain soil
Mostly available soil in India (about 43%) which covers an area of 143 sq.km.Widespread in northern plains and river valleys.In peninsular-India, they are mostly found in deltas and estuaries. New alluvium is termed as Khadarand old alluvium is termed as Bhangar.
Colour: Light Grey to Ash Grey.
Texture: Sandy to silty loam or clay.
Seen mainly in low rainfall area. Also known as Omnibus group..
Colour: Red because of Ferric oxide. The lower layer is reddish yellow or yellow.
Texture:Sandy to clay and loamy.
Black soil / regur soil:
Regur means cotton – best soil for cotton cultivation. Most of the Deccan is occupied by Black soil.It is Mature soil.It has High water retaining capacity.Soils are Swells and will become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. Self-ploughing is a characteristic of the black soil as it develops wide cracks when dried.
Colour: Deep black to light black.
Name from Latin word ‘Later’ which means Brick.It becomes so soft when wet and so hard when dried. In the areas of high temperature and high rainfall.
Colour: Red colour due to iron oxide.
Desert / arid soil:
Seen under Arid and Semi-Arid conditions.
Colour:Red to Brown.
Peaty / marshy soil:
Areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity.Growth of vegetation is very less.A large quantity of dead organic matter/humus which makes the soil alkaline
Regions of high rainfall. Humus content is less and thus the soil is acidic.
In the mountain regions of the country. Immature soil with low humus and acidic.
Understand the Different types of soils
|Types of Soils||States where found||Rich in||Lacks in||Crops grown|
|Alluvial||Mainly found in the plains of Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand etc.||Potash and Lime||LimeNitrogen and Phosphorous||Large variety of rabi and kharif crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, jute etc|
|Black (Regur soil)||Deccan plateau- Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari.Lime||Lime, Iron, Magnesia and Alumina, Potash||Phosphorous, Nitrogen and organic matter||Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat, rice etc.|
|Red||Eastern and southern part of the deccan plateau, Orissa, Chattisgarh and southern parts of the middle Ganga plain.||Iron and Potash||Nitrogen, Phosphorous and humus.||Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and pulses|
|Laterite||Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Assam and Orissa hills.||Western Rajastan, north Gujarat and southern Punjab||Organic matter, Nitrogen, Phosphate and Calcium||Cashewnuts, tea, coffee, rubber|
|Arid and Desert||Western Rajastan, north Gujarat and southern Punjab||Soluble salts, phosphate||Humus, Nitrogen||Only drought resistant and salt tolerant crops such as barley, rape, cotton, millets maize and pulses|
|Saline and Alkaline||Western Gujarat, deltas of eastern coast, Sunderban areas of West Bengal, Punjab and Haryana||Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium||Nitrogen and Calcium||Unfit for agriculture|
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