Chauri – Chaura Incident (1922) Study Material

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Chauri – Chaura Incident (1922) Study Material

The Congress session held at Ahmedabad in December 1921, decided to launch a civil disobedience movement while reiterating its stand on the non-violent, non-cooperation movement of which Gandhi was the appointed leader. Before Gandhi could launch the civil disobedience movement, a mob at Chauri-Chaura led by Jawahar Yadav, near Gorakpur in the present day Uttar Pradesh, clashed with the police which opened fire. In retaliation, the mob burnt the police station and killed 22 policemen. This compelled Gandhi to call off the civil disobedience movement on 11 February 1922. Even so Gandhi was arrested and sentenced to 6 years imprisonment. The Chauri-Chaura incident convinced Gandhi that the nation was not yet ready for mass disobedience and he prevailed upon the Congress Working Committee in Bardoli on 12 February 1922, to call off the non-cooperation movement.

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Trade Unionism: Ideological Battleground

Ideological differences in the labour movement began to appear within a few years after the birth of the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC). The three distinct ideological groups in the trade union organization had entirely different views regarding the labour movement. These groups were; (i) Communists led by M. N. Roy and shripad Amrut Dange who wanted AIIUC to be affiliated to such — international organizations as the League against imperialism and the Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat. The party ideology was supreme to these leaders and they took the unions as instruments for furthering it. (ii) Moderates led by N. M. Joshi and V. V. Giri, who wanted affiliation with the British labour Organization (BLO) and the international Federation of Trade Unions based in Amsterdam. The moderates were … unionists at heart who did not want to crush trade units under political interests. (iii) Nationalists led by the freedom fighters Gandhi and Nehru, who argued that affiliation with the latter organizations would be accepting unending dominion status for the country under the British rule.

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