AGRICULTURE IN INDIA

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People cultivating something in India
By Rajarshi MITRA (Flickr: Down on the farm...) [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

AGRICULTURE IN INDIA ESSAY  | IMPORTANCE

Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58 per cent of India’s population. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry and fishing is estimated at Rs 17.67 trillion (US$ 274.23 billion) in Financial Year 2018. The economic contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP is steadily declining with the country’s broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.
India is expected to achieve the ambitious goal of doubling farm income by 2022. The agriculture sector in India is expected to generate better momentum in the next few years due to increased investments in agricultural infrastructure such as irrigation facilities, warehousing and cold storage. Furthermore, the growing use of genetically modified crops will likely improve the yield for Indian farmers. India is expected to be self-sufficient in pulses in the coming few years due to concerted efforts of scientists to get early-maturing varieties of pulses and the increase in minimum support price.

India is the world’s largest producer of many fresh fruits like banana, mango, guava, papaya, lemon and vegetables like chickpea, okra and milk, major spices like chili pepper, ginger, fibrous crops such as jute, staples such as millets and castor oil seed. India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the world’s major food staples.

AS OF JUNE 2018 -The Current Scenario of Agricultural Sector in India

  1. India is among the 15 leading exporters of agricultural products in the world.
  2. Total agricultural exports from India grew at a CAGR of 16.45 per cent over FY10-18 to reach US$ 38.21 billion in FY18.
  3. The contribution of agriculture to total export was 12.26 per cent in FY17.
  4. Tea exports from India reached a 36 year high of 240.68 million kgs in CY 2017
  5. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry and fishing is estimated at Rs 17.67 trillion (US$ 274.23 billion) in FY18*.
  6. Agriculture and allied sector’s GVA at constant 2011-12 prices grew a CAGR of 2.75 per cent between FY12-18.
  7. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58 per cent of India’s population.
  8. As per Union Budget 2018-19, allocation of Rs 57,600 crore (US$ 8.9 billion) was made for The Agriculture Ministry.

MAJOR CROP TYPES IN INDIA

Food Crops – Rice, wheat, maize, millets, pulses
Cash Crops – Sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, jute
Plantation Crops – coffee, coconut, tea, rubber
Horticulture – Fruits and vegetables

MAJOR AGRICULTURAL SEASONS

Tabulation of major cropping seasons of India
Major cropping seasons Tabulation

PROBLEMS FACED BY THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR – INDIA

  1. Rudimentary infrastructure and policies leads to slow agricultural growth
  2. The average size of land holdings is small
  3. Poor socio-economic condition of farmers
  4. Use of technology is inadequate
  5. Disastrous consequences of hazards
  6. Excessive Pressure on Land

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